Chinese Social Credit System Experiment
11.10.2017 - 14:37:25
11.10.2017 - 14:37:45
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11.10.2017 - 14:56:04
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Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms (AE4710 wiki article backup)
The Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms (Chinese: 中央全面深化改革领导小组; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Quánmiàn Shēnhuà Gǎigé Lǐngdǎo Xiǎozǔ) is a policy formulation and implementation body set up under the Politburo of the Communist Party of China in charge of "Comprehensively Deepening Reforms". These reforms are intended to be even more far-reaching than the previous round of comprehensive Chinese economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping.
The decision to establish the group was announced at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee in November 2013, which also approved a Decision of the CPC Central Committee on Comprehensively Deepening Reforms. On 30 December 2013, the Politburo announced that the group had been formed with Xi Jinping, the Communist Party's General Secretary and China's President, as its leader (zuzhang), and Li Keqiang, Liu Yunshan, and Zhang Gaoli as deputy leaders (fuzuzhang). Its membership ranks are composed of broad stakeholders overseeing various aspects of the party and the state.
The Leading Group's main task is to determine policy guidelines for reforming the economic, political, cultural, social, ethical and party-building systems in order to address long-term reform issues, as well as to guide reform-related bodies of the CPC at central and local level, and supervise the implementation of reform plans.
According to observers, the group will have the ability to push policies past the bureaucracy and help General Secretary Xi Jinping consolidate his power over China's vast government apparatus, the State Council, usually the domain of the Premier.
The group consists entirely of officials of at least "deputy national leader" rank in the official hierarchy. Most of the group's members are also members of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, a 25-member central decision making body. Four of the seven members of the Politburo Standing Committee are also part of the group.
Xi Jinping (Politburo Standing Committee, Party General Secretary, State President)
Li Keqiang (Politburo Standing Committee, Premier of the State Council)
Liu Yunshan (Politburo Standing Committee, First secretary of the Secretariat)
Zhang Gaoli (Politburo Standing Committee, Vice Premier)
Ma Kai (Politburo, Vice Premier)
Wang Huning (Politburo, head of Policy Research Office)
Liu Yandong (Politburo, Vice Premier)
Liu Qibao (Politburo, head of the Propaganda Department)
Xu Qiliang (Politburo, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission)
Li Jianguo (Politburo, vice chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, head of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions)
Wang Yang (Politburo, Vice Premier)
Meng Jianzhu (Politburo, head of the Politics and Law Commission)
Zhao Leji (Politburo, head of the Organization Department)
Li Zhanshu (Politburo, head of the CPC General Office)
Du Qinglin (Secretariat, vice-chairman of the CPPCC)
Zhao Hongzhu (Secretariat, deputy-secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection)
Wang Chen (vice-chairman and secretary-general of the NPC Standing Committee)
Guo Shengkun (Minister of Public Security)
Zhou Qiang (president of the Supreme People's Court)
Cao Jianming (procurator-general)
Zhang Qingli (vice-chairman and secretary-general of the CPPCC)
Zhou Xiaochuan (governor of the People's Bank of China)
Wang Zhengwei (vice-chairman of the CPPCC, head of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission)
Office of Deepening Reform
Wang Huning, Chief of the Office of Deepening Reform, Secretary-General of the Leading Group (Politburo, head of Policy Research Office)
Mu Hong, executive deputy chief of the General Office (deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, minister-level)
Pan Shengzhou, deputy chief of the Office of Deepening Reform (deputy director of the Central Policy Research Office)
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(modif: 11.10.2017 - 14:59:49) [
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SCS wikipedia article AE4710
The Social Credit System is a proposed Chinese government initiative for developing a national reputation system. It has been reported to be intended to assign a "social credit" rating to every citizen based on government data regarding their economic and social status.  In addition, it is also meant to rate businesses operating on the Chinese market.
The Social Credit System is an example of China’s “top-level design” (顶层设计) approach. It is coordinated by the
Central Leading Small Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms
. According to the overall "Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)" issued by the State Council, the Social Credit System will focus on four areas:
"honesty in government affairs" (政务诚信)
, "commercial integrity" (商务诚信), "societal integrity" (社会诚信), and "judicial credibility" (司法公信). Media coverage has thus far focused mostly on the rating of individual citizens (which falls under "societal integrity"). However, the Chinese government‘s plans go beyond that and also include plans for credit scores for all businesses operating in China.
The Chinese government wants the basic structures of the Social Credit System to be in place by 2020. It is unclear whether the system will work as envisioned by then, but the Chinese government has fast-tracked the implementation of the Social Credit System, resulting in the publication of numerous policy documents and plans since the main plan was issued in 2014.
If the Social Credit System is implemented as envisioned, it will constitute a new way of controlling both the behavior of individuals and of businesses.
As of July 2017, no comprehensive, nation-wide social credit system exists, and very little firm information is available about how this system might work in practice. There are, however, multiple pilots testing the system on a local level as well as in specific sectors of industry. One such program has been implemented in Shanghai through its Honest Shanghai app, which uses facial recognition software to browse government records, and rates users accordingly. Some reports have stated that the ratings may use information gathered from Chinese citizens' online behavior, but existing scoring systems run by private companies using such data (such as Sesame Credit) are still in an experimental phase.
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