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Nesqwik0
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niekt00
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sob0
mattoni0
binary riot0
laila0
jolly good0
dodo1
ste3
matt3
timko4
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symbolic4
xado4
sparx5
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bdY15
3033343330315
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bored2d3ath34
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mnagy46
himself48
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samoo54
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druha lapa duhu56
mirny56
mzpx58
spirit62
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orwin64
ea64
darmozrac69
mazhead69
afross78
vshivak80
dusand86
s86
zrnk☉91
september92
milon96
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dnes nie je ...101
sibir101
zola103
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gomez117
famine118
Cudo120
deinende122
borg123
soc125
kljucevskaya128
goatree129
NiO131
dita132
jevgenij133
IDENTITA133
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Harvie136
srk136
porkac137
ygerg137
mnemonic137
ayn137
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steve_mcqueen155
goldenslumbers155
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BRIAN WASHING156
Novinky, inspiracie, napady, technicka pomoc, projekty

Why?
Because we can



1bb98e44b525c18a8975318b4991cd5a.jpgdiy-robot-activities.jpegfablab-03-1024x683-1024x683.jpg


Sites - files, howtos, srcs
http://www.thingiverse.com/ (3d print, laser cut)
https://www.stlfinder.com
makerscase - generator krabic
instructables - open source projekty
Triangulation - triangulacia bitmapov vo vektoroch (svg)
Pixelization illustrator



List of Hacker Spaces ➡️

List of Fablabs Spaces ➡️




Places:

SVK
Progressbar, Bratislava - kybca forum ; web
v01d, Kosice - web
Fablab, Bratislava - web
Komunitné centrum Bystro, Bratislava, SR, http://www.bystro.org/ , https://www.facebook.com/KCBystro/


CZ
Brmlab, Praha - web
Fablab, Brno - web
Base48, Brno - web
Labka, Ostrava - web

AT
Metalab, Vieden - web

HU
Kitchen Budapest KIBU - web

DE
C-Base, Berlin - web

FR
La Fabrique ENSAM, Montpellier - web ; fb
Le BIB, Montpellier - web

PT
AltLab, Lisbon - web, fb

AM
Iterate, Yerevan - web

Pls napiste do komentov vase a pridam (nazov, mesto, stat, web/fb/etc)



Raspebrry Pi forum
3D printing forum



Chce niekto mastra?




00000101000635400833552908625243
binary riot
 binary riot      15.05.2019 - 11:16:15 [1K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
best

best

best

And many others
http://www.openbricks.io/

00000101000635400833552908624659
binary riot
 binary riot      13.05.2019 - 17:44:22 [8K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
hermithouse.jpg?auto=format%2Ccompress&ch=Width%2CDPR&crop=entropy&fit=crop&h=347&q=60&w=616&s=b8b0cacb789453f51ff72e293d6344ff

Dutch duo Daniel Venneman and Mark van der Net have created an open source home kit that allows DIY advocates to build and customize their own micro house. The Hermit House features a unique zigzag floor plan that aims to create a multipurpose interior with a spacious feel, despite its 14 square meter (150 sq. ft.) footprint.

DIY Hermit House allows users to customize and build their own off-the grid micro house
The tiny home can be used for a variety of purposes including: a studio, guesthouse, temporary...
The home features large floor-to-ceiling glass windows that open out onto an outdoor deck
The home features a single open interior space which be personally costumized
The creators say the “folding structure” of the design system means the final building is strong enough to be constructed with inexpensive and lightweight materials.

“The Hermit House was developed as a university project and was the first house we realized,” designers Daniel Venneman and Mark van der Net told Gizmag. “We came to the folded shape in our search for an easy and cheap way to construct DIY using standard sized plywood.”

Applying the motto 'Life Unplugged’ to the Hermit House, the designers wanted to create an opportunity for users to build a personal space where they can relax and disconnect from the outside world. “We see the Hermit Houses as a comfortable small laboratory where people can experiment with living modestly, completely energy-neutral and in interaction with their surroundings,” said Daniel and Mark.

The home features a single open interior space which faces the large floor-to-ceiling glass windows and opens out onto an outdoor deck. With eight different versions to choose from, each home can be customized to include features like an eco-bathroom and kitchen. The tiny homes can be used for a variety of purposes including a studio, guesthouse, temporary festival pavilion, holiday retreat or backyard office.

The system's online interface lets users play around with the Hermit House model and parameters on the 3D design app to develop a customized version. Then by pressing ‘generate manual’, the personal plans are finalized and generated, ready for one to head out, choose building materials and get the kit cut out.

“Most important is the cutting plan of the floor construction, the walls and roof panels. The panels are like a puzzle,” said Daniel and Mark. “It can hardly go wrong if you follow the instructions correctly and saw the panels precisely.”

Following the simple steps of jumping online, playing around with the Hermit House model and parameters...
For those who wish to build a stronger structure, insulated wooden ribs can be added. With the inclusion of photovoltaic panels, a compost toilet, a water tank and the use of recycled materials, the Hermit House has the potential to become a low budget and sustainable off-the-grid home or retreat.

“Most small dwellings like caravans are still very plastic-fantastic. Our Hermit House uses natural and recycled building materials. Mostly wood. We think that sustainability is about constantly striving for a less energy and material intensive building and its usage. In our latest houses we used solar power, compost toilets and wood stoves. We are still studying on how to make the shower facilities as off-the-grid as possible.”

The hermit House has a lifespan of approximately ten years depending on which materials are used. More durable materials will obviously last longer and age more gracefully.

The home is also available for purchase in a prefabricated kit. The kit is produced slightly differently from the DIY method; it uses even less materials and features wooden interior finishes and better insulation. “It’s a way people can build a house for about €700 per sqm [approx. US$936 per 10 sq. ft.], excluding VAT, installation and transportation costs,” said Daniel and Mark.

Furthermore the kits are compact enough to be transported in a van or shipping container and are currently available for delivery within the European Union. However, the designers have strong ambitions to get the kit onto the global market and they are also working on a bed and breakfast online project, which will allow owners to rent out their Hermit House to passing travelers.

"Everybody that builds a Hermit House will be able to use our online booking system to rent it out as they please," said Daniel and Mark. "DIY building becomes DIY B&B, sharing ‘life unplugged’ with others. We see the Hermit Houses as a test bed and are constantly looking for ways to make design more mainstream and introduce mass-customization to full-scale houses.”
http://www.hermithouses.nl/

00000101000635400833552908624654
binary riot
 binary riot      13.05.2019 - 17:22:36 (modif: 13.05.2019 - 17:23:46), level: 1, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
Three-Quarters-Front-Plants_2048x2048.jpg?v=1527575212

about-bg1-lg.jpg?0

img-beehive-warre-l_large.jpg?v=1521156543
https://akerkits.com/

00000101000635400833552908623580
SYNAPSE CREATOR
 himself      09.05.2019 - 15:19:52 (modif: 09.05.2019 - 15:28:27) [12K] , level: 1, UP   NEW  HARDLINK !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
Ja s tým mám dva veľké problémy a bohužiaľ toto nie je prípad kedy dve negatíva vrátia jedno pozitívum.

1) Je to hlupák čo nemá tušenie čo robí

Názov videa hovorí o tom ako učí ľudí o CRISPR. Keď sa pozrieš na jeho kanál tak nikde nehovorí o tom čo ten systém je, odkiaľ pochádza, ako funguje, čo o ňom vieme a čo nevieme, čo dokáže a hlavne nikde nerozpráva o tom aké jeho použitie so sebou nesie riziká. Aspoň ja by som čakal že toto budú témy, ktorým sa niekto kto chce niekoho učiť o technológii, bude venovať. Už len na tom youtube môžeš nájsť desiatky videí kde o CRISPR rozprávajú ľudia ktorí tomu naozaj rozumejú. Tí ľudia tú tému ale nezneužívajú na propagáciu svojho mojo, tak potom to asi s verejnosťou až tak nerezonuje.

Keď si tie jeho inštruktážne videá ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imTXcEh79lw ) pozrie niekto kto videl aspoň dva diely z “bol raz jeden život”, tak musí plakať. V tom videu si kvapol na kožu roztok plasmidu kódujúceho fluorescenčný proteín a bol prekvapený, keď mu z toho nezačala svietiť ruka. To by bola koža dosť mizerný ochranný orgán keby takto ľahko cez seba pustila DNA z miliardy rokov vzdialeného organizmu. Ono teda na heterologickú expresiu génu netreba byť žiadny guru. Stačí nebyť vypatlaný tupec a tento chlapec bohužiaľ túto podmienku nespĺňa. Keď je toto niekto schopný spraviť, natočiť a zverejniť tak je dosť otázne že či je v jeho silách niekoho niečo naučiť.

2) Nedostatok rešpektu voči objektu štúdia.

Jeho youtube kanal obsahuje videá ako “how to biohack your dog” či dokonca “biohack the planet”. Na začiatku toho videa pchá ihlu do žaby a injektuje do nej ktovie čo. Neviem že či len ja som prehnane senzitívny, ale mne je z toho na grcanie. Experimenty na zvieratách sú vo vede prísne regulované a každý jeden musíš vedieť zdôvodniť. Rovnako dôležité je vedieť sa biohazard materiálu bezpečne zbaviť. Vie niečo z toho tento tĺk, keď podľa všetkého netuší ani o existencii jadrovej membrány? Tuto ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N6wStSTgm-Q ) majster rozpráva o tom, že chce geneticky upraviť psa aby mu v tme svetielkoval lebo si myslí že by to mohlo byť cool. O zdravie toho psa sa neobávam, lebo metóda je samozrejme zlá. Trápi ma ale ten mindset že niekto si myslí že je dobrý nápad upravovať genetickú identitu živých bytostí bez akéhokoľvek vyššieho cieľa len tak lebo sa to dá.

Ja chápem že téma genetickej modifikácie ľudí priťahuje, sám som sa na biológiu dal z podobného dôvodu. Len teda o viac ako desať rokov neskôr stále nemám pocit že viem toho dosť na to aby som mohol biohackovať črievičky, nie ešte psov, ľudí či dokonca planétu. Naopak, čím viac toho viem tým mám silnejší pocit, že najlepšie bude keď zostaneme pri tom, že sa budeme snažiť živým systémom predovšetkým porozumieť a nie ich meniť. Ja osobne poznám pár z tých ľudí, ktorí stáli pri objavení potenciálu CRISPR meniť genómy a aj keď sa snažia to predstierať, osobne neverím tomu, že sú si plne vedomí toho aké ďalekosiahle dôsledky to môže mať. To sú všetko ľudia čo tomuto profesionálne venovali kariéry. Potom keď vidím ignoranciu a naivitu týchto chlapcov na internete, tak mi je z toho naozaj smutno.

———
No a čo sa toho jeho legendárneho “CRISPR kitu”, ktorý má ľuďom umožniť experimentovať v garážach týka - tie veci sa všetky dajú zohnať na ebay za pár korún. Každý labák je rád keď sa im podarí tých vecí zbaviť. Ja som všetkými desiatimi za to nech sa ľudia doma hrajú a experimentujú. Nech to ale robia s rešpektom a ten rešpekt ich tento buran určite naučiť nedokáže.

00000101000635400833552908623512
binary riot
 binary riot      09.05.2019 - 13:04:50 [2K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
aby sa nestratilo - https://web.archive.org/web/20010121142000/http://www2.fiu.edu/~mizrachs/hackethic.html

Is there a Hacker Ethic for 90s Hackers?



by Steven Mizrach





Introduction




The goal of this text analysis project was to take the texts of
the computer underground and to analyze them for the presence of a)
knowledge about the Hacker Ethic and b) evolution of that Ethic. Many
writers, such as Steven Levy, bemoan the fact that modern-day hackers
(the computer underground) are not worthy of the name because they do not
live up to the principles of the original Hacker Ethic, and as unethical
individuals, should simply be called "computer terrorists" or "juvenile
delinquents." I sought to examine whether 90s new hackers knew of the old
Hacker Ethic, if they had added anything to it, and the reasons why they
felt they acted differently from their predecessors. I broadened my text
analysis to look at what they saw as ethical violations, and reasons why
some might repudiate the Hacker Ethic or the idea of having an
ethic.



As my text project evolved, I found that after discovering the
existence of a new hacker ethic for new hackers, I was wondering if
people expressing the principles of the new ethic also expressed
the old. I expected that the adoption of a new set of ethics would not
necessarily mean the complete abandonment of the old. This would
establish some continuity between both groups of hackers, and some
familiarity by new hackers with the old ideals. If the hypothesis of
continuity turns out to be true, then new hackers are not as different
from old hackers as authors like Levy (or certain computer security
professionals) might claim. They would then not only have their own
ethics, but also utilize some ethical principles of their predecessors.



I coded 29 documents from the computer underground online
using the NUD*IST text analysis system. I allowed new codes to emerge
from other codes, based on the sort of interactive text-searching and
investigation process that NUDIST makes possible. I decided to code a few
factors that were not directly relevant to my tests, but could provide
avenues for future investigation. Finally, after coding, I came up with
two tests to look at evidence for continuity between the old and new
hacker ethics.



Who is the Computer Underground?




I define the computer underground as members of the following
six groups. Sometimes I refer to the CU as "90s hackers" or "new
hackers," as opposed to old hackers, who are hackers (old sense of the
term) from the 60s who subscribed to the original Hacker Ethic. See
below.



  1. Hackers (Crackers, system intruders) - These are people who
    attempt to penetrate security systems on remote computers. This is the
    new sense of the term, whereas the old sense of the term simply referred
    to a person who was capable of creating hacks, or elegant, unusual, and
    unexpected uses of technology. Typical magazines (both print and online)
    read by hackers include 2600 and Iron Feather
    Journal.


  2. Phreaks (Phone Phreakers, Blue Boxers) - These are people who
    attempt to use technology to explore and/or control the telephone system.
    Originally, this involved the use of "blue boxes" or tone generators, but
    as the phone company began using digital instead of electro-mechanical
    switches, the phreaks became more like hackers. Typical magazines read by
    Phreaks include Phrack, Line Noize, and
    New Fone Express.

  3. Virus writers (also, creators of Trojans, worms, logic bombs)
    - These are people who write code which attempts to a) reproduce itself
    on other systems without authorization and b) often has a side effect,
    whether that be to display a message, play a prank, or trash a hard
    drive. Agents and spiders are essentially 'benevolent' virii, raising the
    question of how underground this activity really is. Typical magazines
    read by Virus writers include 40HEX.

  4. Pirates - Piracy is sort of a non-technical matter.
    Originally, it involved breaking copy protection on software, and this
    activity was called "cracking." Nowadays, few software vendors use copy
    protection, but there are still various minor measures used to prevent
    the unauthorized duplication of software. Pirates devote themselves to
    thwarting these things and sharing commercial software freely with their
    friends. They usually read Pirate Newsletter and
    Pirate magazine.

  5. Cypherpunks (cryptoanarchists) - Cypherpunks freely distribute
    the tools and methods for making use of strong encryption, which is
    basically unbreakable except by massive supercomputers. Because the NSA
    and FBI cannot break strong encryption (which is the basis of the PGP or
    Pretty Good Privacy), programs that employ it are classified as
    munitions, and distribution of algorithms that make use of it is a
    felony. Some cryptoanarchists advocate strong encryption as a tool to
    completely evade the State, by preventing any access whatsoever to
    financial or personal information. They typically read the Cypherpunks
    mailing list.

  6. Anarchists - are committed to distributing illegal (or at
    least morally suspect) information, including but not limited to data on
    bombmaking, lockpicking, pornography, drug manufacturing, pirate radio,
    and cable and satellite TV piracy. In this parlance of the computer
    underground, anarchists are less likely to advocate the overthrow of
    government than the simple refusal to obey restrictions on distributing
    information. They tend to read Cult of the Dead Cow (CDC)
    and Activist Times Incorporated (ATI).

  7. Cyberpunk - usually some combination of the above, plus
    interest in technological self-modification, science fiction of the
    Neuromancer genre, and interest in hardware hacking and
    "street tech." A youth subculture in its own right, with some overlaps
    with the "modern primitive" and "raver" subcultures.




The Documents



These 29 text files come from the following sources: the WELL
(Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link) BBS, the MindVox BBS archives, various
other hacker boards, the Usenet newsgroup alt.2600, World Wide
Web HTML documents, the gopher.eff.org hacking 'zine archive,
the cypherpunks.org ftp site, and a netwide search on
documents containing the search term "hacker ethic." Documents were
selected for this study for relevance, and thus do not constitute a fully
randomized sample of electronic text.



  1. Discussion begins
  2. An unwritten manifesto?
  3. Government ethic
  4. Hacker theory to practice
  5. The Manifesto
  6. The MetaForum


    In 1990, the online bulletin board system (BBS) known as the WELL (Whole
    Earth 'Lectronic Link) co-hosted a conference with Harper's magazine to
    discuss the future of hacking. Old and new hackers were invited to
    participate. These are transcripts of the various postings to the topic
    headings in the conference.




  7. Cracker subculture
  8. Hackers wanted


    These are transcripts of postings to two other topic headings in the WELL
    Hacker Conference forum.



  9. Assert your rights
  10. Defense of Piracy
  11. Revolt



    These are three "propaganda" text files by hacker Subvert, where he
    attempts to make the moral case for hacking.



  12. From Crossbows to Cryptography: Thwarting the State via Technology
  13. The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto


    These two documents from the cypherpunks ftp archive attempt to make the
    case for strong encryption and cryptoanarchy.


  14. Pirate
  15. Pirate Newsletter


    These are two e-zines for pirates.


  16. Ethics of Hacking by "dissident"
  17. Hack Ethics -- A definition of the hacker ethic from the MIT
    "Fishwrap Gallery"
  18. Jargon File hacker ethic -- Definition of "hacker ethic" from the
    Hacker's Jargon File (online companion to Hacker's Dictionary) 3.0
  19. The Hacker's Code of Ethics by "Darkman"


    These are four texts which deal directly with ethical issues pertaining
    to hacking. Two are simply definition files.


  20. CDC -- Cult of the Dead Cow description file
  21. Digital Free Press -- a hacker e-zine
  22. Emmanuel Goldstein testimony-- Testimony of the 2600 leader before a
    Congressional hearing on hacking
  23. Hacker Manifesto -- "The Conscience of a Hacker" by Mentor
  24. Hacker vs Cracker -- " The Difference between Hackers and Crackers"
    by CandyMan
  25. Novice's guide to hacking -- A guide by Mentor and the Legion of
    Doom (LOD), circa 1989
  26. Phrack- Declaration of Grievances of the Electronic Community -- An
    imitation of the grievances clauses from the Declaration of Independence,
    updated for the cyberspace era, containing complaints about current
    technology policy.
  27. Rebels with a Cause -- A 1994 honors essay by Anthropology student
    Tanja Rosteck, containing some transcripts of hacker interviews and
    statements.
  28. What is hacking? -- Definition file from Hacker's Haven Website
  29. The Anarchist's Guide to the BBS -- a description of using BBSes for
    CU purposes.


Other miscellaneous files.



The Original Hacker Ethic



Every profession or trade tends to have an ethical code
which suggests that it is capable of self-regulation of its members. The
code demonstrates the shared core values necessary for people to practice
within the professional community. And it enables the public and the
government to have some degree of trust for the profession. Some of these
codes may be very ancient and formalized, such as the Hippocratic
Oath
sworn by physicians. Others may be very modern and legalistic,
like the code of ethics for applied or academic anthropologists. Some
ethical systems may be "underground," (such as the Pirates' Code of 18th
century buccaneers or Mafia oaths of loyalty) enabling members of
subcultures or groups to survive, cooperate, and escape outsiders. Yet
others like the original Hacker Ethic are very informal and simple -
rules of thumb to live by.



Groups employ different means of enforcing their ethical
systems. Some provisions are often recognized as simply being archaic and
are ignored. This is why most doctors do not heed the prohibitions in the
Hippocratic Oath against abortion or euthanasia, yet most (but not all!)
believe in the ethical principle of not refusing critical treatment to a
patient who is unable to pay. Other groups (such as anthropologists)
often devise ethical codes simply because they are forced to by the bad
behavior of some of their members in the past, and their provisions are
specifically tailored to probems that have arisen. Violating some ethical
codes can get you banned from the profession or worse, when professional
associations exist to enforce the regulations; with hackers, breaking the
Hacker Ethic seems to result mostly in anathema or social ostracization,
a time-honored method of social control.



The original Hacker Ethic was sort of an impromptu, informal
ethical code developed by the original hackers of MIT and Stanford (SAIL)
in the 50s and 60s. These "hackers" were the first generation of
programmers, employing time-sharing terminal access to 'dumb' mainframes,
and they often confronted various sorts of bureaucratic interference that
prevented them from exploring fully how technological systems (computers,
but also model trains, university steam tunnels, university phone
systems, etc.) worked. The ethic reflects their resistance to these
obstacles, and their ideology of the liberatory power of technology. The
six principles of the Hacker Ethic are listed below, with some text
samples showing where it appears within these documents.



A concise summation of it can be found in Steven Levy's 1984
book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Levy
suggested that because of their Ethic and their unconventional style,
hackers like Jobs and Wozniak were able to launch the "computer
revolution," resulting in the first personal computer (the Apple) which
was easy to use and which put programming power in the individual's
hands. Here I cite documents from my sample which reiterate some of its
principles.



  1. Hands On Imperative: Access to computers and hardware should
    be complete and total.

    It is asserted to be a categorical imperative to remove any
    barriers between people and the use and understanding of any technology,
    no matter how large, complex, dangerous, labyrinthine, proprietary, or
    powerful.



    As we can see, this has not been the case. The computer

    system has been solely in the hands of big businesses and
    the government. The wonderful device meant to enrich
    life has become a weapon which dehumanizes people. To
    the government and large businesses, people are no more
    than disk space, and the government doesn't use computers
    to arrange aid for the poor, but to control nuclear death
    weapons. The average American can only have access to a
    small microcomputer which is worth only a fraction of
    what they pay for it. The businesses keep the true state
    of the art equipment away from the people behind a steel
    wall of incredibly high prices and bureaucracy. It is
    because of this state of affairs that hacking was born.
    ("Doctor Crash", 1986)
    [1]



  2. "Information Wants to Be Free"

    "Information wants to be free" can be interpreted in three
    ways. Free might mean without restrictions (freedom of movement
    = no censorship), without control (freedom of change/evolution =
    no ownership or authorship, no intellectual property), or without
    monetary value (no cost.) Some hackers even take this to mean
    information is alive, free to act on its own agency, as viruses, genetic
    algorithms, 'bots and other software programs do. Most hackers seem to
    advocate this principle in different senses of the word "free" at
    different times. In any case, when asked about the content of the Hacker
    Ethic, most people assert this as the key principle.



    There is much knowledge that is disallowed, hidden.
    Government activities, corporate crime, and "illegitimate" information
    needs to be disseminated. People without access to technology need it -
    they can contribute to the world. Distributing this information is
    illegal, potentially dangerous. This, in my humble opinion, is the best
    use of hacked accounts. Obtaining information, disseminating information
    needs anonymity. This protects your hide. This is important. Whistle
    blowers are only silenced when their identity is known...




    Access to information


    Yes, access is a right you have. You need to know when
    the government is killing people, radiating them, listening to them,
    lying to them, lying to you. You have a right to gain access to
    information about OUR government. This government is supposedly of the
    people, by the people, power granted by a social
    contract.
    [2]



  3. Mistrust Authority. Promote decentralization.

    This element of the ethic shows its strong anarchistic,
    individualistic, and libertarian nature. Hackers have always shown
    distrust toward large institutions, including but not limited to the
    State, corporations, and computer administrative bureaucracies (the IBM
    'priesthood'). Tools like the PC are said to move power away from large
    organizations (who use mainframes) and put them in the hands of the
    'little guy' user. Nowhere is this ethos stronger than among the
    anti-statist cypherpunks and extropians.



    In fact, technology represents one of the most
    promising avenues available for re-capturing our freedoms from those
    who have stolen them. By its very nature, it favors the bright (who
    can put it to use) over the dull (who cannot). It favors the adaptable
    (who are quick to see the merit of the new (over the sluggish,
    who cling to time-tested ways). And what two better words are there to
    describe government bureaucracy than "dull" and
    "sluggish"?
    [3]






    The State will of course try to slow or halt the
    spread of this technology, citing national security concerns, use of the
    technology by drug dealers and tax evaders, and fears of societal
    disintegration. Many of these concerns will be valid; crypto anarchy will
    allow national secrets to be traded freely and will allow illicit and
    stolen materials to be traded. An anonymous computerized market will even
    make possible abhorrent markets for assassinations and extortion. Various
    criminal and foreign elements will be active users of CryptoNet. But this
    will not halt the spread of cryptoanarchy.
    [4]




  4. No Bogus Criteria: Hackers should be judged by their hacking,
    not by "bogus criteria" such as race, age, sex, or position.

    Nowhere is this ethos more apparent than in the strong
    embrace by most hackers of the levelling power of the Internet, where
    anonymity makes it possible for all such 'variables' about a person to
    remain unknown, and where their ideas must be judged on their merits
    alone since such contextual factors are not available.



    The Internet is one of the best hacks the world has to
    offer. It has continually shattered deeply ingrained social prejudices
    concerning characteristics such as age, race, wealth, and sex. In fact,
    it is common to find 14 year olds arguing philosophy with 41 year olds on
    America's computer networks!
    [5]



  5. "You can create truth and beauty on a computer."

    Hacking is equated with artistry and creativity. Furthermore,
    this element of the ethos raises it to the level of philosophy (as
    opposed to simple pragmatism), which (at least in some quarters) is about
    humanity's search for the good, the true, and the beautiful.



    Without question, good/great programming (hacking) is
    art and as with art each person has their own signature and style (which
    changes over time). Quite a few years ago I was reviewing some
    derivative works of one hacker, and found the lack of signature and style
    of the original.
    [6]



  6. "Computers can change your life for the better."

    In some ways, this last statement really is simply a corollary
    of the previous one. Since most of humanity desires things that are good,
    true, and/or beautiful, the fact that a computer can create such things
    would seem to mean that axiomatically it can change peoples' lives for
    the better. However, this is merely a declarative statement, which like
    the previous one reflects a deep-felt love of technology. It does not
    state explicitly that computers should always change peoples' lives for
    the better, or the principle that would follow from that, which is that
    it is unethical to use them to make peoples' lives worse. .. Many
    hackers see the Internet as an immense positive force, and this
    reiterated again by hacker Emmanuel Goldstein --



    The future holds such enormous potential. It is vital
    that we not succumb to our fears and allow our democratic ideals and
    privacy values to be shattered. In many ways, the world of cyberspace is
    more real than the real world itself. I say this because it is only
    within the virtual world that people are really free to be themselves -
    to speak without fear of reprisal, to be anonymous if they so choose, to
    participate in a dialogue where one is judged by the merits of their
    words, not the color of their skin or the timbre of their voice. Contrast
    this to our existing "real" world where we often have people sized up
    before they even utter a word. The Internet has evolved, on its own
    volition, to become a true bastion of worldwide democracy. It is the
    obligation of this committee, and of governments throughout the world,
    not to stand in its way.
    [7]




Thus, the ethical principles of the Hacker Ethic suggest it is
the ethical duty of the hacker to remove barriers, liberate information,
decentralize power, honor people based on their ability, and create
things that are good and life-enhancing through computers. It remains an
open question (of interpretation) as to whether it advocates the free
distribution of software (the GNU/Richard Stallman position), the
injunction against using computers for malicious purposes (the Clifford
Stoll position), or the need for secure networks based on trust (the
Steven Levy position.) Each of these document samples show that new
hackers are aware of, and advocate (whether intentionally or
accidentally) elements of the original Hacker Ethic.



New Hacker Ethic



From my documents, I found that there is a new hacker ethic which
90s hackers live by. There are fragments of continuity from the old
hacker ethic, as one can see. The new ethic appears to have developed
like the old one, informally and by processes of mutual reinforcement.
The new ethic seems to contain some ambiguities (like the old one) and a
few contradictions. This may be due to the fact that its practicioners
are more numerous and more dispersed than the original 60s hackers.



  1. "Above all else, do no harm"

    Do not damage computers or data if at all possible. Much like
    the key element of the Hippocratic Oath.



    According to the "hacker ethic," a hack must:
    * be safe


    * not damage anything

    * not damage anyone, either physically, mentally or emotionally

    * be funny, at least to most of the people who experience it


    [8]






    It is against hacker ethics to alter any data aside from
    the logs that are needed to clean their tracks. They have no need or
    desire to destroy data as the malicious crackers. They are there to
    explore the system and learn more. The hacker has a constant yearning and
    thirst for knowledge that increases in intensity as their journey
    progresses.
    [9]






    2. The belief that system-cracking for fun and
    exploration is ethically OK as long as the cracker commits no theft,
    vandalism, or breach of confidentiality.
    [10]



    Of course, the key problem with this ethical position is its
    stance on intent. One should not damage data deliberately. But
    what if, as often happens in hacking attempts, one accidentally erases or
    alters data while trying to alter system log files or user records? Is
    that an ethical violation? Also, the question of what constitutes "harm"
    is left open. Most hackers seem to see pranks and practical jokes as
    harmless, regardless of their psychological impact. Yet their victims may
    not feel these are so 'harmless,' especially if this causes them to lose
    valuable time or effort.



  2. Protect Privacy

    People have a right to privacy, which means control over their
    own personal (or even familial) information. Privacy rights are notably
    missing from the U.S. Constitution, but they have been brought to the
    forefront of modern legal argument due to the growing surveillance power
    of technology. There still is no codified right to privacy for U.S.
    citizens, although the Supreme Court has ruled that it is contained
    implicitly in its judgements legalizing the distribution of birth control
    and the right to first-trimester abortion.



    How far do privacy rights go, however? Do people also have an
    intrinsic right to online anonymity? Do I have the right to conceal my
    health status, criminal record, or sexuality from my employer? Are some
    people (politicians, celebrities, etc.) entitled to less privacy than
    others? Does my social security number, credit history, or telephone
    number belong only to me? Further, the strange thing about hackers
    asserting a right to privacy is that it declares a certain kind of
    information to not be free. Thus, in some ways this is a contradiction to
    the original hacker ethic.



    Your right to Privacy


    Privacy is a right we beleive we have. Unfortunately
    privacy is not explicitately protected in the constitution. Our
    consitution is dated in that respect, there weren't the threats to
    privacy then as there are now. Technology is truly a double-edged sword.
    The abscense of privacy provisions in the constitution does not make it
    any
    less important. Indeed, the lack of constitutional protections have
    allowed our privacy to be gravely
    threatened.
    [11]





    The concept of privacy is something that is very
    important to a hacker. This is so because hackers know how fragile
    privacy is in today's world. Wherever possible we encourage people to
    protect their directories, encrypt their electronic mail, not use
    cellular phones, and whatever else it takes to keep their lives to
    themselves. In 1984 hackers were instrumental in showing the world how
    TRW kept credit files on millions of Americans. Most people had never
    even heard of a credit file until this happened. Passwords were very
    poorly guarded - in fact, credit reports had the password printed on the
    credit report itself.
    [12]



    The second argument is an interesting one. The problem most
    hackers had with TRW is not they kept files on most peoples' credit
    histories without their knowledge (thus they couldn't see if they
    contained any errors), and it was on that (unknown) basis that they were
    denied loans, credit cards, mortgages, etc. It was that those files were
    insecure.



  3. "Waste not, want not."

    Computer resources should not lie idle and wasted. It's
    ethically wrong to keep people out of systems when they could be using
    them during idle time. This is what some people call the "joy riders'
    ethic." If you borrow someone's car, and return it with no damage, a full
    tank of gas, and perhaps even some suggestions for improved performance,
    have you not done them a favor? Especially if they never know you
    borrowed it in the first place for a few road trips? Isn't it wasting
    that precious engine power to leave the car in a parking spot while
    somebody else could be using it for a grocery trip? (Is it an ethical
    violation to borrow the car and make a set of keys for yourself so you
    can borrow it whenever you feel like? This is, after all, what most
    hackers do when they give themselves sysadmin privileges.) Yet most are
    possessive over the use of their own personal computer.



    The hacker ethics involves several things. One of these
    is avoiding waste. Over the internet, we have about a quarter million
    computers each of which is virtually unused for 10 hours a day. A true
    hacker seeing something useful that he could do with terraflops of
    computing power that would otherwise be wasted might would request
    permission to use these machines and would probably go ahead and use them
    even if permission was denied. In doing so, he would take the greatest
    possible precautions to not damage the
    system.
    [13]



  4. Exceed Limitations

    Hacking is about the continual transcendence of problem
    limitations. Some old hackers assert this principle, as an informal
    seventh addition to the original Ethic. Telling a hacker something can't
    be done, is a moral imperative for him to try. "Extropians" believe there
    is a universal force of expansion and growth, inverse to entropy, which
    they call "extropy." Hacking is seen as extropian because it always seeks
    to surpass current limits. Technology is seen as a necessarily
    exponential force of growth. Limitations must be overcome. For some
    hackers, these limitations might be unjust laws or outdated moral codes.



    To become free it may be necessary to break free from
    medieval morality, break unjust laws, and be a disloyal employee. Some
    may call you an disloyal, sinful criminal. To be free in a room of slaves
    is demoralizing. Free your fellow man, give him the tools, the knowledge
    to fight oppression. Do not infringe on others'
    rights.
    [14]



  5. The Communicational Imperative

    People have the right to communicate and associate with
    their peers freely. The United Nations International Telecommunications
    Union (ITU) has stated in many conferences that this should be a
    fundamental human right, with which no nation should ever interfere. The
    sweeping freedoms given to amateur radio hobbyists internationally
    reflect this belief. Globally, it remains a significant moral problem, in
    that most developing nations lack the infrastructure to grant this right.
    Various UN reports have shown that despite the rhetoric, many Third World
    nations do not have access to the "global" information superhighway
    because they lack "onramps." Their telecommunications infrastructure is
    lacking.



    Most hackers strongly support the 1st amendments' rights to
    communication and assembly, since these are necessary for the free flow
    of information. Phreakers take this a step beyond, however, in asserting
    that people should have the right to communicate with each other cheaply
    (thus poor people have as much right to talk on the phone long distance
    as the rest of us) and easily . When telecommunications companies are an
    obstacle to this right to communicate, phreaking (blue boxing the phone
    system, making unauthorized 'bridge' conference calls, using empty
    voicemail boxes, etc.) is said to be the answer.



    The Right to communicate


    Communicate!

    This is our strongest right, and our most crucial. There mere fact that
    this page is allowed to exist is proof that our 1st amendment has not
    crumbled completely. Despite the governmental protection, there are
    threats to our freedom to communicate.
    [15]



  6. Leave No Traces

    Don't leave a trail or trace of your presence; don't call
    attention to yourself or your exploits. Keep quiet, so everyone can enjoy
    what you have. This is an ethical principle, in that the hacker follows
    it not only for his own self-interest, but also to protect other hackers
    from being caught or losing access. Such a principle can be found among
    various criminal or underground organizations. Of course, there is a
    contradiction between asserting a need for secrecy (as well as privacy),
    and the need for unrestricted information.



    The rules a Hacker lives by:


    1. Keep a low profile.

    2. If suspected, keep a lower profile.

    3. If accused, deny it.

    4. If caught, plea the 5th.
    [16]



  7. Share!

    Information increases in value by sharing it with the maximum
    number of people; don't hoard, don't hide. Just because it wants to be
    free, does not mean necessarily you must give it to as many people as
    possible. This principle can be seen as an elaboration on an original
    ethical principle. The Pirates' ethic is that piracy increases interest
    in software, by giving people a chance to try it out and experiment with
    it before paying for it. So sharing software with your friends is a good
    thing.



    Pirates SHARE warez to learn, trade information, and
    have fun! But, being a pirate is more than swapping warez. It's a life
    style and a passion. The office worker or class mate who brings in a disk
    with a few files is not necessarily a pirate any more than a friend
    laying a copy of the lastest Depeche Mode album on you is a pirate. The
    *TRUE* pirate is plugged into a larger group of people who share similar
    interests in warez. This is usually done through Bulletin Board Systems
    (BBSs), and the rule of thumb is "you gotta give a little to get a
    little...ya gets back what ya gives." Pirates are NOT freeloaders, and
    only lamerz think they get something for
    nothing.
    [17]



  8. Self Defense against a Cyberpunk Future

    Hacking and viruses are necessary to protect people from a
    possible 1984/cyberpunk dystopian future, or even in the present from the
    growing power of government and corporations. It's a moral imperative to
    use hacking as the equivalent of 'jujitsu,' allowing the individual to
    overcome larger, more impersonal, more powerful forces that can control
    their lives. If governments and corporations know they can be hacked,
    then they will not overstep their power to afflict the citizenry.



    I believe, before it's all over, that the War between
    those who love liberty and the control freaks who have been waiting for
    to rid America of all that constitutional mollycoddling called the Bill
    of Rights, will escalate.



    Should that come to pass, I will want to use every available method to
    vex and confuse the eyes and ears of surveillance. Viruses could become
    the necessary defense against a government that fears your
    computer.

    [18]



    What's interesting is that this principle recognizes and asserts
    that it's not only possible but also likely for computers to have
    a dark side and to be used for purposes other than truth and beauty, and
    that we need to be wary of technology, or at least technology in the
    wrong hands.



  9. Hacking Helps Security

    This could be called the "Tiger team ethic": it is useful and
    courteous to find security holes, and then tell people how to fix them.
    Hacking is a positive force, because it shows people how to mend weak
    security, or in some cases to recognize and accept that total security is
    unattainable, without drastic sacrifice.



    Sense 2 is more controversial: some people consider the
    act of cracking itself to be unethical, like breaking and entering. But
    the belief that `ethical' cracking excludes destruction at least
    moderates the behavior of people who see themselves as `benign' crackers
    (see also samurai). Based on this view, it may be one of the highest
    forms of hackerly courtesy to (a) break into a system, and then (b)
    explain to the sysop, preferably by email from a superuser account,
    exactly how it was done and how the hole can be plugged --- acting as an
    unpaid (and unsolicited) tiger team.
    [19]



    Many software companies today, including Lotus, regularly use
    tiger teams to test their security systems. So, this ethical principle
    seems to be agreed upon by some members of the industry -- to a certain
    extent. Even Lotus does not want its systems being tested by hackers who
    are not under its employ or control.



  10. Trust, but Test!

    You must constantly test the integrity of systems and find ways
    to improve them. Do not leave their maintenance and schematics to others;
    understand fully the systems you use or which affect you. If you can
    exploit certain systems (such as the telephone network) in ways that
    their creators never intended or anticipated, that's all to the better.
    This could help them create better systems. One of those systems that may
    require constant revision, testing, and adjustment, apparently, is
    constitutional democracy.



    Democracy is always being tested -- it's an inherent
    part of what it stands for. whether it's flag burners, gay activists,
    klansmen, or computer hackers, we're always testing the system to see if
    it holds up to pressure. i stress that this is NOT an end iwe do because
    it interests us, but in the bigger picture we're actually testing the
    sincerity of the democratic system, whether we're aware of it or
    not.
    [20]



    One of the most important manuals for British hackers was called
    "beating the system." The essential argument is that as systems (like the
    phone network) become more and more complex, they become impossible to
    manage from a centralized office. Hacking at the edges of the system not
    only becomes possible, in some cases it becomes necessary. It becomes an
    ethical imperative to test the system, lest it fail when it is most
    needed (like the AT & T phone switches did in 1990.)




So, in short, the new hacker ethic suggests that it is the
ethical duty of new hackers (or the CU), to : 1) protect data and
hardware 2) respect and protect privacy 3) utilize what is being wasted
by others 4) exceed unnecessary restrictions 5) promote peoples' right to
communicate 6) leave no traces 7) share data and software 8) be vigilant
against cyber-tyranny and 9) test security and system integrity of
computer systems.



Violations/Transgressions



These could be considered the "thou shalt nots" of the new
hacker ethic, as opposed to its affirmative "you shoulds." Some of these
transgressions of the hacker ethic are already implied by some of its
basic affirmative principles. We can get an idea of what hackers believe
they should do, based on what they reject as unsuitable activities of
their peers.



  1. Bootlegging

    Commercialism; selling pirated software; hacking for profit;
    selling out. Bootlegging violates the new ethic of sharing and the
    original hacker ethic which eschewed profit (and embraced personal
    satisfaction) as a reason for creating software (hence the existence of
    Richard Stallman's GNU Free Software Foundation.)



    On occasion the possibility of making a profit from
    these advances tempts hackers into commercialism. On other occasions,
    they see commercialism as the only way to get their work into the hands
    of the masses. When they succeed they become rich, and usually get moved
    further and further from hacker life and more and more into paperwork and
    then don't live happily ever after.
    [21]






    Bootleggers are to pirates as a chop-shop is to a home
    auto mechanic. Bootleggers are people who DEAL stolen merchandise for
    personal gain. Bootleggers are crooks. They sell stolen goods. Pirates
    are not crooks, and most pirates consider bootleggers to be lower life
    forms than child molesters.
    [22]



    Bootlegging seems to contradict new hacker ethic 7,
    share!



  2. Freeloading

    Always taking and never contributing. Profitting from other
    peoples' efforts without adding to them. "Warez d00dz" and
    "Codez d00dz" who are hunting for free software or phone codes
    without offering anything in return (a hack, a number, whatever) are
    looked down upon. Hoarding and refusing to tell others about your hacks
    are seen as wrong. This also violates the new ethic of sharing.



    In fact, pirates may be one of the best forms of
    advertising for quality products, because sharing allows a shop-around
    method for buying warez. Most of us buy a program for the documents and
    the support, but why invest in four or five similar programs if we aren't
    sure which best suits our needs? Nah, pirates aren't freeloaders. We are
    against freeloading.
    [23]



  3. Trashing

    Crashing systems; destroying hardware; hurting other users;
    malicious vandalism; irreversible damaging or destroying of data;
    unleashing destructive viruses, Trojans, logic bombs. Prankful
    (non-harmless) games with users and sysops and systems is acceptable...
    This is seen as the obvious corollary of the new ethic to "do no harm."



    I. Do not intentionally damage *any* system. Trashing
    BBSes is wrong, plain and simple.


    II. Do not alter any system files other than ones needed to ensure your
    escape from detection and your future access (Trojan Horses, Altering
    Logs, and the like are all necessary to your survival for as long as
    possible.)
    [24]






    The one thing I hate, is the way some self-appointed
    hackers find there way into a system, and ruin the name of the rest of us
    by destroying everything they can find. Now that is pathetic. First of
    all, as I said, it ruins the name of the rest of us. Thus, once again,
    the "Destructive Computer User" Stereotype... A board crasher is no more
    a "hacker" than my grandmother is.
    [25]



  4. Excessive Selfishness

    Self interest overrules any concern for other hackers
    whatsoever. This violation implies others... once again, we run into the
    strange divide at the heart of the Hacker Ethic, which is deeply
    individualistic, yet also fiercely communal. Individuals are expected to
    be highly self-motivated, but not selfish.



    I think you'd be less agitated if you define your
    categories as hackers and criminals. The former are in it to explore and
    the latter are in it for themselves and nothing else. Of course, some
    hackers do break laws on occasion but I don't think that necessarily
    turns them into criminals, at least not in the moral sense.
    [26]






    Also, some hackers have this massive ego problem... I
    must name one here, for that problem, and he is Corporal Punishment... I
    have had numerous run-ins with this guy. He seems to think he is a God,
    constantly running everyone into the ground. He even went as far as
    saying "PHRACK sucks!" But he isn't the only one with that problem...
    Some feel that if they put others down, they will elevate to a higher
    level. Sorry to burst you bubble guys, but your only viewed as massive
    ego-maniacs that deserve nothing less than being run down
    yourselves...
    [27]





    Let us not forget that hackers, crackers, chippers,
    crunchers, and whatnot all have ego, and one thing that bothers me about
    using the Hacker Ethic to describe people is that ego and self-interest
    are not accounted for. How else can you explain crackers selling pirated
    software, otherwise intelligent people distributing viruses to the

    general public in hope of causing maximum damage to other users, or
    hackers breaking into some system and erasing files for laughs? People
    break into computers because it's fun and it makes one feel powerful,
    not because there is untapped power waiting to be used if only the right
    programming "wizard" comes along.
    [28]



  5. The (Selective) Anti-Stealing Ethic

    Information, services, and software are not property;
    hardware, physical property, money, and monetary services (credit cards,
    digital cash, phone card numbers) are. Theft of these is still wrong.
    Also, the target makes a difference. Stealing phone service (say,
    voicemail boxes) from a large institution like a corporation or the
    government is OK. Stealing it from an individual or a small nonprofit is
    not.



    Thus the new hacker ethic, according to its propagandists,
    does not embrace theft; instead it simply defines certain things (like
    information) as not being personal property, or certain actions (using
    phone service) as "borrowing" rather than theft.



    So where is the boundary between the hacker world and
    the
    criminal world? To me, it has always been in the same place. We know that
    it's wrong to steal tangible objects. We know that it's wrong to
    vandalize. We know that it's wrong to invade somebody's privacy. Not one
    of these elements is part of the hacker
    world.
    [29]



  6. Bragging

    Calling too much attention to oneself. It is acceptable
    ('elite') to brag in private hacker circles, unacceptable to brag or make
    taunts and dares to sysops, law enforcement, or authorities, or in any
    public forum where they tend to listen. Some hackers even consider the
    first unacceptable, since hacker boards are monitored by the Secret
    Service as well. Bragging and boasting to the media or other non-hackers
    violates the ethic of 'leave no trace' and keeping a low profile.



    Bragging after a neat hack may seem like the natural
    thing to do. But just remember that it can only call attention to
    yourself, and not everyone who pays attention to hackers are admirers.
    You may jeopardize your friends and anyone else who ever accesses the
    same system as you.
    [30]






    True hackers are quiet. I don't mean they talk at about
    .5 dB, I mean they keep their mouths shut and don't brag. The number one
    killer of those the media would have us call hackers is bragging. You
    tell a friend, or you run your mouth on a board, and sooner or later
    people in power will find out what you did, who you are, and you're
    gone...
    [31]



  7. Spying

    Snooping, monitoring of people, and invading their privacy
    is wrong... so therefore is reading private e-mail, etc. This follows
    from the new hacker ethic which sees privacy as a fundamental right.
    However, part of the hacker praxis is about finding out passwords and
    security holes from users, whether through "social engineering" or simple
    snooping and "sniffing." This is the contradiction, once again, of
    embracing privacy but also insisting on unrestricted information.



    Some crackers are using computers in the exact
    *opposite* way that the first hackers intended them: first, by
    restricting the unimpeded and unmonitored flow of information through
    the computer networks and phone lines; and second, by
    using computers to monitor people, by intrusive methods
    of information-gathering.
    [32]



  8. Narcing

    It is wrong to turn other hackers in. This part of their
    ethical code is not different from many other criminal organizations or
    subcultures, such as prison inmates, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc., or
    even 'above-ground' subcultures such as police departments. ("code of
    silence.") However, this code has special meaning for hackers, since many
    ex-hackers often decide to become computer security personnel later in
    life. Many of their peers consider this 'selling out.'



    There's no lower form of life than the narc. Hackers who
    go and rat on other hackers are scum. They get lots of promises of
    immunity and stuff if they turn in all their friends. Some hackers get
    back at other people by turning them into the feds. This is wrong, and it
    only damages the hacker community. We need to stick together, because
    nobody else is really on our side.
    [33]






    The last thing I will mention, will be hackers turning
    in other hackers to federal crime agencies, or to the PhoneCorp security
    offices, or any other type of company that deals with computer related
    phraud. This activity, refered to as Narcing, is getting to be too
    popular for a hackers good... You may be saying, " Come on, no hacker in
    they're right mind would turn another on in ". And your right... It's
    once again those self proclaimed hackers, or the ones who think they are
    who will do this to get "Even"...
    [34]




We can then see that new hackers do believe certain things are
wrong - and people who commit these actions are frowned upon and often
prevented from being recognized by the hacker community. Many of the
things new hackers reject, would also be rejected by the community of old
hackers.



Reasons for Change



I coded various "emic" explanations in these texts for why some
people felt the Hacker Ethic had changed. These could potentially provide
the basis for looking for some interesting etic, measurable variables.



  1. "More Stuff"

    Computers are more numerous, more powerful, more networked,
    more distributed, more important, more widespread. More power over
    society = more corruption, more incentive.



    So the process of society adopting a new technology BY
    DEFINITION must include the removal of all idealistic motivations
    originally present in the promoters of the technology. Computers are
    power, and direct contact with power can bring out the best or the worst
    in a person. The Hacker Ethic is simply the ideal case: it's tempting to
    think that everyone exposed to the technology will be so grandly
    inspired, but alas, it just ain't so.


    The "hacker ethic" was unnoticed before because fiddling with large
    complex systems was so difficult until recently. There have always been
    basement tinkers and young pranksters but their explorations were very
    local. Once we are all connected, the work of these investigators ripple
    through the world we have constructed and affect
    us.

    [35]





    We live in the age of computers. Everything is
    controlled by massive mainframes; Our water distribution system,
    rail-road control, airline control, electricity control, telephone
    companies, etc, etc, etc... Imagine the fun someone can have in one of
    those systems!!! Just the fact of getting in them can sometimes be a
    major accomplishment. But my point is, what people do once they are
    in...
    [36]



  2. Society

    Society has changed for the worse. Either the old hackers lived
    in a more sheltered, supportive, rewarding environment (the MIT lab where
    they had access to everything they could ever want, plus recognition from
    their mentors and peers), or they simply lived in a larger society (the
    U.S. of the 50s) which was more based on trust, honesty, etc., and that
    is why their behavior was different. This might be the sort of
    sociological explanation found in a sociology textbook.



    PANTY RAIDS: When panty raids meet biotech it may be
    time to adapt new rituals; or the cracker phenomena is more complex then
    that and has at least something to do with increased levels of social
    alienation and how the street finds its own use for
    things.
    [37]






    It is my contention that hackers did not change. Society
    changed, and it changed for the worse. The environment the early hackers
    were working in rewarded them for their mischief and their desire to
    experiment and try new things.
    [38]


  3. The Computer Industry has Sold Out


    The computer industry sold out; no commercial software developers today
    believe in the Hacker Ethic either. They patent software, copy-protect
    programs, lock up data and algorithms. New hackers are merely responding
    to the times. They wouldn't have to do what they have to do if the
    computer industry believed in open standards and systems and free source
    code.



    And yet, in practice, I can't help but conclude that the computer
    revolution is over, and that the people lost. The computer community is
    driven now not by a lust for knowledge but by a lust for money. What were
    fledgling companies of wild-eyed programmers sharing knowledge and
    feeding on each other's ideas have become corporate behemoths, run by
    suits and ties, and copyright lawyers, and the bottom
    line.
    [39]


  4. Generational Change

    Hackers, like other youth of their generation ("generation
    X"), are more alienated, more pessimistic, more self-centered, more
    thoughtless, more careless, more pragmatic, etc. It's not that society,
    technology, or computing practices changed; it's just that new hackers
    come from a generation which was raised differently from its predecessors
    and was exposed to different influences.


    It's like you sometimes see in the media -
    'GenX' is more in it for themselves, more likely to try and get ahead
    through using information from any which way, and more often see
    themselves as getting screwed over by their elders ... so it's not
    surprising that they don't have the same attitudes as Baby Boomer
    hackers.
    [40]




A future research project might be to try and turn these into
etic variables. If one could operationalize and measure "level of
alienation" for the authors of these texts, it might turn out to be a
causal factor for "level of adherence to the Hacker Ethic," which would
be the degree to which the person espouses the old or new Hacker ethics.
Or one could try and correlate changes in the Hacker Ethic with changes
in computing practices or level of intensification of computer use.



Repudiations



It's interesting to examine the ways in which 90s hackers often
repudiate the original Hacker Ethic, or the possibility of embracing any
Ethic at all. These are based on some items I coded in the texts, and
other mentions found on the Net.



  1. Fraud

    "The hacker ethic is a fraud" perpetrated by the original
    hackers. It's too idealistic to possibly work in the real world.



    But the Hacker Ethic is also a fraud. It is a fraud
    because there is nothing magical about computers that causes one of its
    users or owners to undergo religious conversions and devote themselves to
    use of the computer for the betterment of the public good. Early
    automobile enthusiasts were tinkerers, inventors, people with a dream
    building motorized transportation. Then the new invention became
    popular and the elite used it to drive around in luxury. Then the new
    invention became accessible, and for many, necessary for survival. Now
    we have traffic jams, drunk drivers, air pollution, and suburban sprawl.
    Whatever magic still present in the use of the automobile occasionally
    surfaces, but we possess no delusions that it automatically invades the
    consciousness of everyone who sits behind the
    wheel.
    [41]


  2. Individualism

    Individualistic loners don't tend to subcribe to communal
    ethics. Many hackers argue that hacking is by nature oriented toward
    individualism rather than "groupthink," and thus the community of hackers
    is one of mutually reinforcing self-interest rather than any true form of
    fellowship or common ideology.



  3. Many, not one

    There is no one single hacker ethic; in the extreme position,
    every hacker has their own ethic.



    I think the problem we're all having is the fact that everyone is
    deluding themselves thinking there is only ONE 'hacker ethic'. The truth
    of the matter is, everyone has their *OWN* hacker 'ethic'. To say that
    we all think the same way is foolish.
    [42]



  4. Anti-professionalism

    Ethics are usually professional standards; by their very
    nature hackers are anti-professional and tend to make up the rules as
    they go along. Creating a professional, formalized code for hackers would
    mean the end of hacking.



  5. Natural Evolution

    The hacker ethic, like any belief system, must evolve over
    time; it's foolish to assume anyone could maintain the same ethics when
    everything else (especially technology) changes so rapidly.





In exploring some of the factors that lead to rejection of the
original Hacker Ethic, we might be able to understand better why certain
hackers do embrace either the old or new one or a combination of both.



Investigations of Patterns



I did two index tree searches of the NUDIST tree-index to
examine my hypothesis of continuity between the 60s and 90s hackers.



Report 1



This was simply an index search where I told NUDIST to identify
the number of documents which contained codes from both the old and new
hacker ethics' subcodes. Any document which contained one or more codes
from both sets of ethical codes was considered a 'hit,' indicating
knowledge of (if not practice) of both systems. The results were:
retrievals in 15 out of 29 documents or 52 percent. This seems to be
statistically significant, and it is unlikely that hackers would express
elements of both ethical systems purely by chance unless they were aware
of both.



Report 2



I generated a matrix of overlapping documents for the Hacker
Ethics (old and new). This identifies where codes co-occur within the
same text units (as opposed to elsewhere in the same text) and in which
documents.


1 1 1 2 1 3 1
4
1 5 1 6
2 1 24 24, 18
2 2
2 3
2 4
2 5
2 6
2 7
2 8 27 27
2 9
2 10



In document 24, "hacker vs. cracker," we see the co-occurence of
the old hacker ethic of "total access" and the new hacker ethic of "do no
harm," as well as the co-occurence of "information wants to be free" with
"do no harm." In document 18, "Hacker ethic jargon file," we see the
co-occurence of these same sentiments. And in document 27, "Rebels with a
cause," we see the co-occurence of "self defense" with "information wants
to be free" and "computers can change your life for the better."



Apparently, while hackers may express principles of both hacker
ethics, they are unlikely to do so at the same time or within the same
thought. Co-occurence within the same text unit did not occur very often
- only 3 out of 29 documents.



Conclusions - areas for future research



I feel it safe to say that I can conclude a few basic facts
from this early effort at text analysis. Mostly, I have a basis for a
good deal of future research. I might be able to state more, if I had
access to more documents or more information about their authors beyond
their "handles."



  1. New 90s hackers are not unethical. They are not unaware
    of the original Hacker Ethic. They have their own ethical system which
    combines elements of the old 60s Hacker Ethic with some new innovations
    (the new hacker ethic.) The fact that ethics are important to these
    hackers is suggested by the fact that they anethematize "crackers" and
    "dark side" hackers for transgressions which violate the spirit of their
    ethics.
  2. There are four interesting areas of investigation for
    looking into the changes between the old and new Hacker Ethic.
    Measurement of changes in computer technology, social indicators,
    computer industry practices, and generational demographics might provide
    variables which covary with, and possibly even explain, the changes in
    this ideological system.
  3. Some new hackers do repudiate the original Hacker Ethic
    or the possibility of having an ethic at all. It would be interesting to
    find out what aspects of their profiles (age, background, experience,
    gender, social class, etc.) correlate with whether or not they repudiate
    it and why. There should be some way to predict whether or not a hacker
    is likely to embrace the ethic, and how much they fidelity to it they
    will demonstrate.
  4. The (old and new) Hacker Ethic is not totally
    idiosyncratic. Elements of it are similar to principles advocated by
    American culture and its "democratic" constitutional and informal ideals;
    the ethical codes of professional organizations such as academics,
    doctors, and lawyers; the ethical systems of "underground" and
    marginalized groups such as addicts, prostitutes, homeless people, etc.;
    and traditional ethical precepts of philosophy (such as the Golden Rule
    or Kantian categorical imperative.) Hackers are not alone in wanting
    privacy, knowledge, or community.
  5. The similarity between the old and new hacker ethics
    suggest that the new hackers did not emerge out of a distinct "tradition"
    from the old hackers. Ethical continuity suggests some demographic
    continuity. The 60s and 90s hackers may not be all that different,
    despite the fact that the 60s hackers consider the 90s hackers to be less
    deserving of the mantle of the term "hacker."



Text Sources



  1. Rebels with a Cause
  2. Revolt
  3. From Crossbows to Crypto
  4. Cryptoanarchist Manifesto
  5. Declaration of Grievances of the Electronic Community
  6. The Manifesto
  7. Emmanuel Goldstein Testimony
  8. Hack Ethics
  9. Hacker vs. Cracker
  10. Jargon file - hacker ethic
  11. Assert your rights
  12. Emmanuel Goldstein testimony
  13. Discussion begins
  14. Revolt
  15. Assert your rights
  16. What is hacking?
  17. Pirate Newsletter
  18. Government ethic
  19. Jargon file - hacker ethic
  20. The Manifesto
  21. Discussion begins
  22. Pirate Newsletter
  23. Pirate Newsletter
  24. Novice's guide to hacking
  25. The Hacker's Code of Ethics
  26. Cracker subculture
  27. The Hacker's Code of Ethics
  28. The Manifesto
  29. Emmanuel Goldstein testimony
  30. What is hacking?
  31. Ethics of Hacking
  32. Government ethic
  33. What is hacking?
  34. The Hacker's Code of Ethics
  35. Discussion begins
  36. The Hacker's Code of Ethics
  37. Cracker subculture
  38. Digital Free Press #2
  39. Discussion begins
  40. Anarchist's Guide to the BBS
  41. Discussion begins
  42. Discussion begins


Return to CyberAnthropology


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binary riot
 binary riot      06.05.2019 - 12:58:11 (modif: 06.05.2019 - 12:58:27) [9K] , level: 1, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
whole-earth-catalog-1968-300x392.jpeg

WEC.jpg

Whole-Earth-Catalog-Menlo-Park-Portola-Institute-Fall-1970-74-5.png

download: https://monoskop.org/images/0/09/Brand_Stewart_Whole_Earth_Catalog_Fall_1968.pdf

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jolly good
 jolly good      07.05.2019 - 02:26:59 , level: 2, UP   NEW
mam v kancli dve edicie :) fetisisticky zaramovane

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timko
 timko      06.05.2019 - 23:35:34 , level: 2, UP   NEW
skvele

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VitaminC
 VitaminC      06.05.2019 - 19:53:16 , level: 2, UP   NEW
riadne haluze

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binary riot
 binary riot      05.05.2019 - 12:32:06 , level: 1, UP   NEW
Specific examples of organisational handbooks
Permanent (e.g. workplaces, businesses, NGOs)
Most of my organising experience is in Loomio, a software co-op with a great handbook.
Loomio is one of many social enterprises in the Enspiral network. The Enspiral Handbook explains how we self-govern.
The Gini Handbook is particularly strong on decision-making, with useful sections on communication skills, personal growth, and feedback.
The Gitlab Handbook is especially relevant for people working in remote teams — they have more than 400 staff and no central location.
Crisp DNA is the handbook from a self-organising company of 35+ autonomous consultants. They do cool things with money and ownership!
OuiShare Handbook – structures and practices for the distributed OuiShare network
A Feminist Organization’s Handbook is a beautiful resource from the Women’s Center for Creative Work in Los Angeles. They explain how they work, with the expressed intention of helping others to learn from their experience.
Alcoholics Anonymous operate as an “upside-down organisation”. Their manual is an up-to-date summary of 80+ years of decentralised organising at scale.
The IETF is the principal body governing the development of the Internet. Their open, voluntary, self-organising principles are documented in the Tao of the IETF.
Public Interest Research Center is a thinktank for civil society, helping social movements tell better stories. They’ve recently transitioned to a flat organisational structure. No handbook yet, but they published this excellent story about the transition.
Platform is an arts /education / research /activism org. No public handbook, but their Social Justice Waging System is impressive.
How to Start a Tool Lending Library is a toolkit hosted by ShareStarter.org, a site which they are seeking to convene a “Lending Library Alliance”, to promote the establishment of new Libraries of Things and Tool Libraries across the country and around the world by spreading the idea, inspiring the creation of new tool lending libraries, and providing the information and assistance necessary…
Transition Towns’ Essential Guide to doing Transition is available in many languages.
Valve Employee Handbook – Valve is a software company that works without bosses. They published their handbook in 2012.
Edgeryders is a unique online community and company, a kind of thinktank and mutual aid network. A lot of their work is done in public, e.g. see their Principles for collaboration and operations in Edgeryders. “No plan is the plan.”
The Borderland a collaborative community organized around an annual participatory event. It organizes itself using two processes: Dream Prototyping and Consensual Do-ocracy, also known as the Advice Process, influenced by Frederic Laloux’s Reinventing Organizations.
Outseta Operating Agreement - Outseta is a SaaS company with a fully distributed team that has adopted self-management. We’ve made our operating agreement public: how we make functional and financial decisions. We also published an overview of what self-management is, an overview to folks new to the subject.
350 Seattle – Structure resources for a campaigning org
Open Coop Governance Model designed for use in the Guerilla Translation co-op, as a model for others to remix
Scaling Agile at Spotify: explaining how Spotify’s 250+ tech staff coordinate across tribes, squads, chapters and guilds.
Hanno Playbook - a self-managing team of 8 designers with excellent documentation about the internal operations of their company
https://hackmd.io/s/Skh_dXNbE

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binary riot
 binary riot      05.05.2019 - 12:07:56 (modif: 05.05.2019 - 12:10:14), level: 1, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
Play sparks interest and interest drives desire for mastery. Practicing and gaining mastery build confidence. The teacher strives to find the balance between guidance and autonomy. Excitement over making connections, getting better at making things, completing projects, and overcoming obstacles is the process that builds confidence as students move toward full independence.
Blikstein
Download here: https://fablearn.org/fellows/meaningful-making-book/

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binary riot
 binary riot      05.05.2019 - 10:26:35 , level: 1, UP   NEW

https://www.scopesdf.org/scopesdf_lesson/finding-fibonacci-in-the-helicone-2/

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binary riot
 binary riot      05.05.2019 - 08:49:03 , level: 1, UP   NEW
“Freire was also an advocate for education as a form of empowerment and argued that learners should go from the “consciousness of the real” to the “consciousness of the possible” as they perceive the “viable new alternatives” beyond “limiting situations” (Freire, 1974). Therefore, students’ projects should be deeply connected with meaningful problems, either at a personal or community level, and designing solutions to those problems would become both educational and empowering.”
Blikstein, 2013, Digital Fabrication and ‘Making’ in Education:
The Democratization of Invention

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binary riot
 binary riot      04.05.2019 - 16:35:30 [5K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
Nothing could be more absurd than an experiment in which computers are placed in a classroom where nothing else is changed.

You can’t teach people everything they need to know. The best you can do is position them where they can find what they need to know when they need to know it.

I am convinced that the best learning takes place when the learner takes charge.

The scandal of education is that every time you teach something, you deprive a [student] of the pleasure and benefit of discovery.

Every maker of video games knows something that the makers of curriculum don’t seem to understand. You’ll never see a video game being advertised as being easy. Kids who do not like school will tell you it’s not because it’s too hard. It’s because it’s–boring

One might say the computer is being used to program the child. In my vision, the child programs the computer, and in doing so, both acquires a sense of mastery over a piece of the most modern and powerful technology and establishes an intense contact with some of the deepest ideas from science, from mathematics, and from the art of intellectual model building.

I tell adults about the experiences of more than a hundred teachers I’ve interviewed. They tell me that allowing the child to help them learn helped them become better teachers. That’s because they no longer had to pretend they were the experts – not only about computers but about other things.

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binary riot
 binary riot      04.05.2019 - 11:34:42 , level: 1, UP   NEW
bigouishare.jpg

From its beginnings 8 years ago, Ouishare has grown into an international network with 60 connectors (highly active members) and hundreds of members in 20 countries throughout Europe, Latin and North America, and the Middle-East.
It all started with the vision of transforming the world through sharing, using technology to organize as networks of peers and do business in a more open, collaborative and horizontal way. Inspired by this idea for a better future, a team of young and passionate individuals created Ouishare as an experiment and a quest to do more meaningful work and challenge the status quo.

Today, the members of Ouishare spend a lot of time questioning, experimenting, and deconstructing the myths of our time as well as our own idealistic visions: collaborative practices, shared governance, decentralization, smart cities. We like to move into areas where we are not expected and are always exploring the edges to find new ways to address the many challenges of our time.

We are best known for our expertise in organizing innovative and participatory events, creating and curating physical spaces that connect diverse ecosystems, and our ability to research and shed light on emerging topics.

Some former Ouishare members have become entrepreneurs, others have joined public agencies, and again others enjoy the life of freelancers. With time, we have come to realize that that Ouishare is much like a university, an incubator of people for those who seek a new type of entrepreneurship. This is what we are most proud of.

The adventure will continue as long as there are other explorer-entrepreneurs willing to join us, who have the desire to lead innovative projects and to question our times.
https://www.ouishare.net/

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binary riot
 binary riot      04.05.2019 - 11:08:41 , level: 1, UP   NEW

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binary riot
 binary riot      04.05.2019 - 10:51:27 [1K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
Words indicating labour in most European languages originate in an imagery of compulsion, torment, affliction and persecution. The French word travail (and Spanish trabajo), like its English equivalent, are derived from the Latin trepaliare – to torture, to inflict suffering or agony. The word peine, meaning penalty or punishment, also is used to signify arduous labour, something accomplished with great effort. The German Arbeit suggests effort, hardship and suffering; it is cognate with the Slavonic rabota (from which English derives "robot"), a word meaning corvee, forced or serf labour. In romance languages, words from the Latin laborare have come to mean ploughing or tilling the earth, although in Italian, lavoro also means work in general. The Latin meaning was anything accomplished with difficulty and struggle.
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jan/14/language-labouring-reveals-tortured-roots1?fbclid=IwAR1obMd_Z9uqP6CngotGmB9HmVAO7yzfiGQfxBtPGoDMa9jaz6UIR_orRNM

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al-caid
 al-caid      06.05.2019 - 18:14:45 (modif: 06.05.2019 - 18:15:19), level: 2, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
kognatom Arbeit je vsak aj Erbe "dedic" - https://kyberia.sk/id/7825548

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binary riot
 binary riot      03.05.2019 - 14:02:36 (modif: 03.05.2019 - 14:05:10), level: 1, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
series of non routine tasks that require social intelligence, complex critical thinking and creative problem solving


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binary riot
 binary riot      01.05.2019 - 14:09:02 [1K] , level: 1, UP   NEW

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binary riot
 binary riot      01.05.2019 - 08:32:48 , level: 1, UP   NEW
It is a tool for helping people intentionally manipulate space to ignite creativity.

Appropriate for designers charged with creating new spaces or anyone interested in revamping an existing space, this guide offers novel and non-obvious strategies for changing surroundings specifically to enhance the ways in which teams and individuals communicate, work, play—and innovate. This work is based on years of classes and programs at the d.school including countless prototypes and iterations with d.school students and spaces.

Download these free resources (below) to get started.
This content is protected under a Creative Commons 3.o Non-Commercial, Share Alike License.
https://dschool.stanford.edu/resources/make-space-excerpts

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binary riot
 binary riot      01.05.2019 - 08:30:29 (modif: 01.05.2019 - 08:30:46), level: 1, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
img.gif
https://github.com/mozilla/inclusive-space-toolkit/

The pressure to constantly learn, grow new skills, and hustle to make an impact is high in emerging technologies. Emerging technologies like augmented and virtual reality, artificial intelligence and machine learning are constantly evolving and combining, placing new demands on the people who make them.

Mozilla’s mission is to ensure an internet that’s open and accessible to all. As emerging technologies push the internet into new form factors, the importance of diversity and inclusion in emerging technologies cannot be overstated.

Our effort is defined by the pressure to hustle as we experience it in Silicon Valley and around the world. We also find ourselves in a profound moment with respect to women’s power and representation in workplaces. Our focus on women and gender non-binary folks in 2018 was shaped by events in the San Francisco Bay Area: the loss of safe maker spaces and the activist energy that led high-tech employees to walk off the job. This environment also framed our desired impact: open new opportunities for women from diverse age ranges and backgrounds to work and learn in emerging technology. In doing so we prepare them to pay it forward in the companies they join, the people they mentor and the innovation they create.

We offer this toolkit as a perspective on what’s needed for real human connection among people struggling to learn and make it, not only in California, but around the world. This model is powerful and replicable. With physical gathering space and community as our guides, we are using mixed reality to design the future communities we want to see: the same intimate connections will be possible at a distance. Looking out 10, 20, 30 years we hope virtual spaces will dismantle the privileges associated with geographical location.

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binary riot
 binary riot      30.04.2019 - 14:31:23 [1K] , level: 1, UP   NEW

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binary riot
 binary riot      30.04.2019 - 12:30:33 [2K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
Starting in the Middle Ages, when craft guilds were first conceived in Western Europe, artisans — from haberdashers to glassmakers — have organized themselves in skill-based communities to control production and quality, support apprenticeship and obtain local influence. Here, we highlight five collectives across the continent that are reviving that centuries-old structure of shared resources and labor. Inspired by the collaborative tenets of the Bauhaus school in Germany, the rise of contemporary co-working spaces around the world and the groundswell of socialist rhetoric in the face of increasing urban gentrification, these communities are redefining the relationship between designers and the cities in which they live.

24tmag-guilds-slide-FEB0-superJumbo.jpg?quality=90&auto=webp

24tmag-guilds-slide-G7XZ-superJumbo.jpg?quality=90&auto=webp
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/25/t-magazine/craft-guild-la-friche-zaventem-ateliers.html?smid=fb-nytimes&smtyp=cur&fbclid=IwAR3ZUxh1x61L-R_QOIn5rEopdzlmUmyG6a1u0kilKVtYxgMUjKsu7_0d_8k

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binary riot
 binary riot      29.04.2019 - 16:52:42 , level: 1, UP   NEW
RepRap is humanity's first general-purpose self-replicating manufacturing machine.

RepRap takes the form of a free desktop 3D printer capable of printing plastic objects. Since many parts of RepRap are made from plastic and RepRap prints those parts, RepRap self-replicates by making a kit of itself - a kit that anyone can assemble given time and materials. It also means that - if you've got a RepRap - you can print lots of useful stuff, and you can print another RepRap for a friend...
https://reprap.org

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mirex
 mirex      30.04.2019 - 10:21:26 (modif: 30.04.2019 - 10:22:34), level: 2, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
Ono toto plati dost aj pre Prusov printer, vela casti si vies vytlacit; vela casti su zavitove tyce, sroby, iba zopar casti a elektronika su nutne zakupit.

edit: vlastne Prusa je asi postaveny na RepRap ze.

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binary riot
 binary riot      30.04.2019 - 12:18:43 , level: 3, UP   NEW
ah ok, teraz som si vsimla edit :)

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binary riot
 binary riot      30.04.2019 - 12:18:29 , level: 3, UP   NEW
https://reprap.org/wiki/Prusa_i3 :)

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Prospero
 Prospero      29.04.2019 - 12:56:57 [10K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
DSC07974_670.jpg

Multifunctional network device for autonomous activity in the city environment. Its main function is communication and propaganda through the Wi-FI wireless standard. This is the hacktivism diy response to attempts by the authorities in different countries to control the Internet. The project serves as an example of the possible opposition and decentralisation of networks to ensure communications and provide notifications irrespective of whether there is access to the global internet or certain restrictions are applied.


The device consists of three standalone Wi-Fi access points based on the esp8266 chip and Arduino Mega board, which is the core brain of the system. The device is also equipped with a keyboard for typing text and OLED screen for convenience of use. It can function based on a built-in battery (up to eight hours), or any power bank/telephone charge.




Operating principle:



- When typing the text on the keyboard, I can at any moment create/change network names, using the Latin alphabet or Cyrillic script. This makes it possible for the actual network names to serve as a way of transmitting specific information: personal messages, calls for action, mottos, notifications, or any other statement. As all state-of-the-art smartphones, tablets and computers are equipped with Wi-Fi modules, it is highly likely that such a message could be read at a radius of up to 100 metres, depending on the actual space. Each network name may have up to 32x symbols, and if all three networks are used – 96 symbols. In addition, in crowded places (for example, the metro), numerous users constantly look for networks, and as there are usually precious few external networks, it is highly likely that numerous people will see the message when they choose a connection while underground.



- If the user is connected to one of the networks (none of the networks have passwords), then the captive page (welcome page/registration page) jumps out at the user. This page may have any deliberately assigned content, and inter alia, lead to other pages located on the standalone servers of all three hotspots. This will make it possible to deliver vast volumes of information, constituting an autonomous Internet to all intents and purposes. The text of A Cyberpunk Manifesto by Christian Kirtchev (1997) is placed on the demo page used in the video documentation.


http://vtol.cc/filter/works/Hot-Ninja

Wenn es etwas im Leben gibt, dass die menschliche Seele anspricht, dann ist es Liebe und Schönheit.

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binary riot
 binary riot      27.04.2019 - 19:04:48 , level: 1, UP   NEW

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binary riot
 binary riot      27.04.2019 - 17:58:30 , level: 1, UP   NEW
OpenBCICopter-2.jpg?resize=768%2C512&ssl=1
https://irenevigueguix.wordpress.com/2016/07/14/a-toy-helicopter-throttle-controlled-by-alpha-waves/

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 binary riot      26.04.2019 - 16:40:02 [1K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
games for kids
https://scratch.mit.edu/