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flush, grep, rotate, release - ths r th bsc nstrctns 4 grl

A zkratka, je-li na svete Dilo , jez nemuze byt tak dobre ukonceno nikym jinym nez tim, kdo je zacal, je to dilo toto, na nemz pracuji.

R. Descartes, 23 rokov

foresight institute
nanodot portal
kyberia nanotech section






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smrtak
 smrtak      03.11.2012 - 14:41:17 [1K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
ot?
http://goodcleantech.pcmag.com/batteries/279059-widetronix-develops-nuclear-battery-that-lasts-25-years

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forcer
 forcer      08.01.2013 - 08:33:10 , level: 2, UP   NEW
2009

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doctoor
 doctoor      17.09.2012 - 00:06:25 , level: 1, UP   NEW
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120916074526.htm

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NiO
 NiO      23.02.2012 - 23:33:05 [2K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
toto vyzera dobre, schranka s liecivom vytvarovana z DNA ktora sa otvori po sucasnom aktivovani viac chemickych receptorov

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ode
 ode      28.03.2012 - 23:54:39 , level: 2, UP   NEW
zaujímavé

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wern
 wern      30.10.2011 - 09:52:45 [2K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
http://www.hw.cz/teorie-a-praxe/mimochodem/vykon-ktery-vysoce-presahuje-soucastne-dobijejici-baterie-a

0000010100063533009502970006375205959723
SYNAPSE CREATOR
 papuchalk      20.04.2011 - 09:19:19 [37K] , level: 1, UP   NEW  HARDLINK
neni to presne on-topic, ale castecne to sem patri. obvykle jsou zde obrazove zaznamy vesmiru v "malem meritku", na vec se vsak da divat i jinak. nikoliv zmenseniny, ale zvetseniny. spolecnost FEI vyrabi elektronove mikroskopy (namisto svetelnych castic fotonu se vystreluji na zkoumane misto mnohem drbnejsi elektrony), se kterymi lze az radove statisickrat zvetsovat obraz, a jsme zase ve "vesmiru", ale v trochu jinem ;]
cely photostream ukazek je zde http://www.flickr.com/photos/fei_company/

4691285643_900d628b78_z.jpg

4669810328_063e56d5da_z.jpg

4653717923_c3e09691c1_z.jpg
Volcano with the sun
When intercalating Litium ions into bulk silicon,the expansion of the host materrial is tremedous and provokes the formation of features with varius shapes: volcanoes, rifts... etc ets

4535033682_0d4204a229_z.jpg
Micro tree
Nanocomposite of polyaniline and ferrite after pyrolysis at 600°C under atmosphere of argon.
The colors were obtained by software FEI Company (Enhanced image: Color =>Custon).

4460343016_6028dbdcb5_z.jpg?zz=1
Cathedral for religious nanobots on Rutile Hill
Crystal growth of titania on TiO2 as a result of cation diffusion under a chemical gradient.

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SYNAPSE CREATOR
 harrysmoke      16.04.2011 - 21:14:41 [4K] , level: 1, UP   NEW  HARDLINK
Mozno ste zachytili, mozno nie, na strankach http://veda-blog.tk sme rozbehli vedecky blog. No a ako to uz u multimilionovych nadnarodnych spolocnosti chodi, presunuli sme sa na lepsie miesto a tym je Eveda.sk. Zmena sa udiala aj v hostingu, ten teraz bezi na slovenskych serveroch s vacsou dostupnostou. A aby to nebolo len tak, chystame aj zmeny obsahove - pride na rad uzivatelska interakcia a ak neupadneme do stavu agonie tak pridu aj nejake origos vychytavky. enjoy!

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harrysmoke
 harrysmoke      03.03.2011 - 07:55:15 [4K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
Zdravim,

chcel by som predstavit nas projektik - vedecky zurnal, ktory ma ambiciu to daleko dotiahnut. budu sa tam objavovat clanky pokial mozno zo vsetkych vedeckych odvetvi, takze si tam kazdy najde to svoje

stranka je stale v Beta verzii, takze par features este chyba, hruba stavba je ale hotova
http://veda-blog.tk

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chawivala
 chawivala      17.04.2012 - 20:56:26 , level: 2, UP   NEW
ESET Smart Security
Prístup zablokovaný

Informácie:
Stránka: http://cheapheadphonesnow.com/&_=1334688853
Popis: Prístup na stránku bol zablokovaný programom ESET Smart Security. Stránka sa nachádza na zozname s potenciálne nebezpečným obsahom.

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dixi____
 dixi____      14.04.2011 - 23:14:14 , level: 2, UP   NEW
???
ta stranka je asi dole, mne momentalne nefunguje resp. ukazuje tam nejake bludy

... Sun Is Shining ...
yeeaaha :P

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      11.11.2008 - 09:06:17 , level: 1, UP   NEW
Researchers discover method for mass production of nanomaterial graphene

Process has already produced the largest graphene sample reported

Graphene is a perfect example of the wonders of nanotechnology, in which common substances are scaled down to an atomic level to uncover new and exciting possibilities.

Graphene is created when graphite — the mother form of all graphitic carbon, which is used to make the pigment that allows pencils to write on paper — is reduced down to a one-atom-thick sheet. Graphene is among the strongest materials known and has an attractive array of benefits. These sheets — single-layer graphene — have potential as electrodes for solar cells, for use in sensors, as the anode electrode material in lithium batteries and as efficient zero-band-gap semiconductors.

Research on graphene sheets has been restricted, though, due to the difficulty of creating single-layer samples for use in experiments. But in a study published online Nov. 9 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, researchers from UCLA's California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) propose a method which can produce graphene sheets in large quantities.

Led by Yang Yang, a professor of materials science and engineering at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering, and Richard Kaner, a UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry, the researchers developed a method of placing graphite oxide paper in a solution of pure hydrazine (a chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen), which reduces the graphite oxide paper into single-layer graphene.

Such methods have been studied by others, but this is the first reported instance of using hydrazine as the solvent. The graphene produced from the hydrazine solution is also a more efficient electrical conductor. Field-effect devices display output currents three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported using chemically produced graphene. Kaner and Kang's co-authors on the research were doctoral students Vincent Tung, from Yang's lab, and Matthew Allen, from Kaner's lab.

"We have discovered a route toward solution processing of large-scale graphene sheets," Tung said. "These breakthroughs represent the future of graphene nanoelectronic research."

The coverage of the graphene sheets can be controlled by altering the concentration and composition of the hydrazine solution. This hydrazine method also preserves the integrity of the sheets, producing the largest-area graphene sheet yet reported, 20 micrometers by 40 micrometers. A micrometer is one-millionth of a meter, while a nanometer is one billionth of a meter.

"These graphene sheets are by far the largest produced, and the method allows great control over deposition," Allen said. "Chemically converted graphene can now be studied in depth through a variety of electronic tests and microscopic techniques not previously possible."

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d3nzel
 d3nzel      27.11.2008 - 12:28:23 , level: 2, UP   NEW
super, len zacinam posledne roky pochybovat ze sa my nanotech revolucie dozijeme, doslaka :P

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      04.02.2009 - 00:55:22 , level: 3, UP   NEW
len pre tvoju skepticku gebulu, som pridal odakzy na FT + blogovu kritiku :)

(podla mna si Kurzweil plni sny a kto ini ako nasa a google by ho chceli mat "pod palcom"

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Joker
 Joker      27.11.2008 - 17:13:44 , level: 3, UP   NEW
sak revolucia je uz to, ze sa tym zapodievame =]
a mnoho veci sa uz dnes vyuziva - prechod je kontinualny nie skokovy...

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ode
 ode      19.09.2008 - 02:02:32 [5K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
"12-year-old William Yuan's invention of a highly-efficient, three-dimensional nanotube solar cell for visible and ultraviolet light has won him an award and a $25,000 scholarship from the Davidson Institute for Talent Development. 'Current solar cells are flat and can only absorb visible light'" Yuan said. 'I came up with an innovative solar cell that absorbs both visible and UV light. My project focused on finding the optimum solar cell to further increase the light absorption and efficiency and design a nanotube for light-electricity conversion efficiency.' Solar panels with his 3D cells would provide 500 times more light absorption than commercially-available solar cells and nine times more than cutting-edge 3D solar cells. 'My next step is to talk to manufacturers to see if they will build a working prototype,' Yuan said. "If the design works in a real test stage, I want to find a company to manufacture and market it.""
http://hardware.slashdot.org/hardware/08/09/18/177238.shtml
http://www.beavertonvalleytimes.com/news/story.php?story_id=122109656865633500

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d3nzel
 d3nzel      13.10.2008 - 15:38:44 , level: 2, UP   NEW
k!rasne jednoducho logicke&sikovne

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      19.09.2008 - 12:28:31 [1K] , level: 2, UP   NEW
z diskusie:
"Makes me feel stupid for spending my childhood throwing rocks at cats."
:))

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nabhoth
 nabhoth      21.07.2008 - 17:51:54 , level: 1, UP   NEW
Spiderman hehehe

http://technology.newscientist.com/channel/tech/mg19926656.300-invisible-nanotube-cable-could-support-a-human.html?feedId=online-news_rss20

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SYNAPSE CREATOR
 greensun      30.05.2008 - 01:31:41 (modif: 30.05.2008 - 01:31:49) [3K] , level: 1, UP   NEW  HARDLINK !!CONTENT CHANGED!!

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forcer
 forcer      02.05.2008 - 15:42:00 , level: 1, UP   NEW
http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/2008/apr-jun/memristor.html

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      25.03.2008 - 14:58:43 , level: 1, UP   NEW
University of Maryland physicists have shown that in graphene the intrinsic limit to the mobility, a measure of how well a material conducts electricity, is higher than any other known material at room temperature. Graphene, a single-atom-thick sheet of graphite, is a new material which combines aspects of semiconductors and metals.

Their results, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, indicate that graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional semiconductor materials such as silicon in applications ranging from high-speed computer chips to biochemical sensors.

A team of researchers led by physics professor Michael S. Fuhrer of the university’s Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, and the Maryland NanoCenter said the findings are the first measurement of the effect of thermal vibrations on the conduction of electrons in graphene, and show that thermal vibrations have an extraordinarily small effect on the electrons in graphene.

In any material, the energy associated with the temperature of the material causes the atoms of the material to vibrate in place. As electrons travel through the material, they can bounce off these vibrating atoms, giving rise to electrical resistance. This electrical resistance is “intrinsic” to the material: it cannot be eliminated unless the material is cooled to absolute zero temperature, and hence sets the upper limit to how well a material can conduct electricity.

In graphene, the vibrating atoms at room temperature produce a resistivity of about 1.0 microOhm-cm (resistivity is a specific measure of resistance; the resistance of a piece material is its resistivity times its length and divided by its cross-sectional area). This is about 35 percent less than the resistivity of copper, the lowest resistivity material known at room temperature.

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rx
 rx      28.02.2008 - 18:10:56 , level: 1, UP   NEW
http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=206801669

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      16.01.2008 - 12:46:31 , level: 1, UP   NEW
New material pushes the boundary of blackness

CHICAGO, Jan 15 (Reuters) - U.S. researchers said on Tuesday they have made the darkest material on Earth, a substance so black it absorbs more than 99.9 percent of light.
Made from tiny tubes of carbon standing on end, this material is almost 30 times darker than a carbon substance used by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology as the current benchmark of blackness.

And the material is close to the long-sought ideal black, which could absorb all colors of light and reflect none.
"All the light that goes in is basically absorbed," Pulickel Ajayan, who led the research team at Rice University in Houston, said in a telephone interview. "It is almost pushing the limit of how much light can be absorbed into one material."
The substance has a total reflective index of 0.045 percent -- which is more than three times darker than the nickel-phosphorous alloy that now holds the record as the world's darkest material.
Basic black paint, by comparison, has a reflective index of 5 percent to 10 percent.
The researchers are seeking a world's darkest material designation by Guinness World Records. But their work will likely yield more than just bragging rights.
Ajayan said the material could be used in solar energy conversion. "You could think of a material that basically collects all the light that falls into it," he said.
It could also could be used in infrared detection or astronomical observation.

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      16.01.2008 - 12:52:21 (modif: 16.01.2008 - 13:03:03), level: 2, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
Malý myšlienkový experiment ma napadol

Predstavme si, že máme kocku z tohto materiálu. Dáme ju do stredu miestnosti osvetlenej ambientným svetlom (teda miestnosť je osvetlená rovnomerne). Keďže kocka pohlcuje všetko svetlo, nie je možné rozoznať jej hrany a preto môžme chodiť okolo nej dokola, no stále bude vyzerať ako dvojrozmerný objekt otočený smerom k nám.

touto ilúziou by sa teda dal dosiahnuť paradoxný efekt, že predmet je v jednej chvíli otočený "tvárou" ku všetkým pozorovateľom súčasne. teda by nadobudol iluzionárny kvantový stav. ;)

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sagasta
 sagasta      16.01.2008 - 18:47:21 , level: 3, UP   NEW
kocka by v roznych uhloch najskor davala rozne tvary-obrysy, aj ked aj to moze byt celkom zabavne. ci v podstate akykolvek predmet - proste tien.
do cirkusu, ci do armady, vymakane.

tak dufam, ze v tlaciarni ti namiesali tu spravnu ciernu ;))

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rx
 rx      02.11.2007 - 13:40:11 [2K] , level: 1, UP   NEW
Single Nanotube Becomes World's Smallest Radio

"Researchers at the National Science Foundation have utilized a single carbon nanotube to perform all the functions of a standard radio, acting as an antenna, tunable filter, amplifier, and demodulator. They were then able to tune in a radio signal generated in the room and play it back through an attached speaker. The device is functional across a bandwidth widely used for commercial radio. From the NSF: 'The source content for the first laboratory test of the radio was "Layla," by Derek and the Dominos, followed soon after by "Good Vibrations" by the Beach Boys.'"

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/11/01/1614200
http://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=110566

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      13.09.2007 - 15:34:51 , level: 1, UP   NEW
European Commission is world's largest public investor in nanotechnology
Brussels, 13 September 2007

With €1.4 billion allocated to 550 projects in the field of nanosciences and nanotechnology, the EU's 6 th Research Framework Programme accounts for one-third of total public funding for nanotechnology and is the world's largest single funding agency worldwide for this exciting field. A recent report, focused on the implementation of the 2005 Action Plan for Nanotechnology, shows the strategic importance of nanotechnology, an area of recognised European leadership, and the contribution this field of science can make to the quality of life and economic well-being of Europeans, for example through revolutionary activities in key areas such as materials, electronics and medicine. The European Commission is committed to an integrated and responsible approach to developing nanotechnologies, taking into account all aspects – safety, acceptance by society, ethical implications and so on.

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      05.09.2007 - 10:28:04 , level: 1, UP   NEW
New technique producing small things in large quantities

UH-developed nanopantography can create billions of nanotech devices in hours
HOUSTON, September 4, 2007 – Although relatively new to the market, liquid crystal display (LCD) televisions may soon be obsolete, thanks to a new technique created by University of Houston professors.

Vincent Donnelly, Demetre Economou and Paul Ruchhoeft, all of the Cullen College of Engineering, have developed a technique that allows nanotech devices to be mass-produced, which could move the television industry away from the LCD display to the superior field emission display (FED). FEDs use a large array of carbon nanotubes – the most efficient emitters known – to create a higher resolution picture than an LCD.

The nanotech fabrication technique that can mass produce an ordered array of carbon nanotubes and make FEDs happen promises to remove some of the largest practical barriers to mass-producing nanotech devices, Economou said.

Dubbed nanopantography, the method uses standard photolithography to selectively remove parts of a thin film and etching to create arrays of ion-focusing micro-lenses – small round holes through a metal structure – on a substrate, such as a silicon wafer.

“These lenses act as focusing elements,” Donnelly said. “They focus the beamlets to fabricate a hole 100 times smaller than the lens size.”

A beam of ions is then directed at the substrate. When the wafer is tilted, the desired pattern is replicated simultaneously in billions of many closely spaced holes over an area, limited only by the size of the ion beam.

“The nanostructures that you can form out of that focusing can be written simultaneously over the whole wafer in predetermined positions,” Economou said. “Without our technique, nanotech devices can be made with electron-beam writing or with a scanning tunneling microscope. However, the throughput, or fabrication speed, is extremely slow and is not suitable for mass production or for producing nanostructures of any desired shape and material.”

With the right ions and gaseous elements, the nanotech fabrication method can be used to etch a variety of materials and virtually any shape with nanosize dimensions. A standard printing technique that can create lenses measuring 100 nanometers wide could be used to draw features just one nanometer wide if combined with nanopantography.

“We expect nanopantography to become a viable method for rapid, large-scale fabrication,” Donnelly said. Economou, Donnelly and Ruchhoeft have been working on the technology for four years and UH filed the patent application in December 2006.

They hope the technology can become commercially available in five to 10 years and expect it to become a viable method for large-scale production.

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      29.06.2007 - 12:24:03 , level: 1, UP   NEW
New, invisible nano-fibers conduct electricity, repel dirt

COLUMBUS , Ohio -- Tiny plastic fibers could be the key to some diverse technologies in the future -- including self-cleaning surfaces, transparent electronics, and biomedical tools that manipulate strands of DNA.

In the June issue of the journal Nature Nanotechnology, Ohio State University researchers describe how they created surfaces that, seen with the eye, look as flat and transparent as a sheet of glass. But seen up close, the surfaces are actually carpeted with tiny fibers.


A scanning electron microscope image of plastic fibers grown on a sheet of transparent film.

The patent-pending technology involves a method for growing a bed of fibers of a specific length, and using chemical treatments to tailor the fibers' properties, explained Arthur J. Epstein, Distinguished University Professor of chemistry and physics and director of the university's Institute for Magnetic and Electronic Polymers.

"One of the good things about working with these polymers is that you're able to structure them in many different ways," Epstein said. "Plus, we found that we can coat almost any surface with these fibers."

For this study, the scientists grew fibers of different heights and diameters, and were able to modify the fibers' molecular structures by exposing them to different chemicals.

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      29.06.2007 - 12:16:07 , level: 1, UP   NEW
Bright future for nanosized light source

A bio-friendly nano-sized light source capable of emitting coherent light
across the visible spectrum has been invented by researchers with the US
Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the
University of California at Berkeley. Among the many potential applications
of this nano-sized light source, once the technology is refined, are single
cell endoscopy and other forms of subwavelength bio-imaging, integrated
circuitry for nanophotonic technology and new advanced methods of cyber
cryptography.

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exe_bege
 exe_bege      27.06.2007 - 18:26:19 (modif: 27.06.2007 - 18:31:44), level: 1, UP   NEW !!CONTENT CHANGED!!
Transparent transistors to bring future displays, 'e-paper'

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- Researchers have used nanotechnology to create transparent transistors and circuits, a step that promises a broad range of applications, from e-paper and flexible color screens for consumer electronics to "smart cards" and "heads-up" displays in auto windshields.

The transistors are made of single "nanowires," or tiny cylindrical structures that were assembled on glass or thin films of flexible plastic.

"The nanowires themselves are transparent, the contacts we put on them are transparent and the glass or plastic substrate is transparent," said David Janes, a researcher at Purdue University's Birck Nanotechnology Center and a professor in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

Other researchers had previously created nanowire transistors, but the metal electrodes in the transistors were non-transparent, which made the overall structure opaque, said Tobin J. Marks, the Vladimir N. Ipatieff Professor of Chemistry and a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University.

"Our study demonstrates that nanowire electronics can be fully transparent, as well as flexible, while maintaining high performance levels," Marks said. "This opens the door to entirely new technologies for high-performance transparent flexible displays."

Findings were detailed this month in a research paper in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

The advancement has three broad areas of potential applications:

* Transparent displays for uses such as heads-up displays on windshields and information displays on eyeglasses and visors. The displays enable drivers to see information without looking down at the dashboard and could project information on visors for workers without obstructing their view. Potential applications also include sports goggles for spectators to follow a particular player while having relevant statistics displayed and real-time interactive information for soldiers and surgeons.

* Flexible displays for future "e-paper," promising to allow full-motion video. E-paper is a technology designed to mimic regular ink on paper. Unlike conventional flat-panel displays, which use a backlight to illuminate pixels, e-paper reflects light like ordinary paper and is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity while allowing the image to be changed later. Potential uses of e-paper include low-cost, energy efficient ways of displaying information and video as a replacement for paper in magazines, newspapers, books, electronic signs and billboards.

* Transparent and flexible electronics for radio frequency identification tags, electronic bar codes and smart credit cards, which resemble ordinary credit cards but contain an embedded microprocessor. This microprocessor replaces the usual magnetic strip on a credit or debit card, increasing the security of data stored on the card and enabling computers to "talk" to the microprocessor. Such a technology could be used to display balances on cards and could be used for the free flow of people through transportation systems, avoiding the need of ticketing machines or validation gates. The cards could contain encryption software, secure data for use in pay phones and banking, and to contain health-care data for patients and allow tamper-proof identification information for workers.


The nanowires were made of zinc oxide or indium oxide.

Unlike conventional computer chips - called CMOS, for complementary metal oxide semiconductor chips - the thin-film transistors could be produced less expensively under low temperatures, making them ideal to incorporate into plastic films, which melt under high-temperature processing.

Liquid crystal displays now used in applications such as color cell phone screens are made with thin-film electronics. This thin-film technology makes it possible to lay down electronic devices in large sheets containing individual pixels. Current thin-film electronics use technologies known as amorphous silicon and poly-silicon.

"These approaches work fine if you have a flat, rigid display that's going to be opaque," Janes said. "They require fairly high-temperature processing, so they are not good on plastic, although industry is working really hard to get them on plastic and make them lightweight, flexible and transparent."

An alternative, emerging technology uses so-called "organic" or "plastic" transistors to replace the conventional silicon that has been a mainstay of microelectronics for decades. While this technology enables transistors to be embedded in or printed on flexible plastic, it has lower performance, although major advances are being made, Marks said.

The new research represents the best of both worlds.

"You can get high performance because the nanowires themselves give you some unique performance advantages, and you could still think of dispersing them down over large areas for displays, smart credit cards and other applications," Janes said.

The nanowires are transparent because they are made of materials that do not absorb light in the visible range of the spectrum. In conventional electronics, transistors are connected to the rest of the circuitry by tiny lines of metal that act as wires. But in the new approach, the nanowires are the transistors.

"This is a different kind of wire," Janes said. "It is basically taking the place of the silicon in silicon electronics."

One reason for the higher performance realized in the new technology is that the devices have a better "on-off ratio" than previous thin-film technologies, Janes said.

Having a good on-off ratio helps conserve power, making the new thin-film transistors practical for portable battery-powered devices.

"In a transistor, you are trying to turn it off and on, like a switch," Janes said. "But unlike a wall switch in your house, a transistor never really turns completely off. There is always a little bit of leakage through it, sort of like crimping a garden hose."

The nanowire transistors help to reduce this leakage while also offering the possibility of precisely controlling the pixels in displays.

"We think of transistors as switches, but we don't just want them to be full on or full off," Janes said. "We'd like it to have gray scale, to be able to mix up many colors to get different subtle shades. And that's in part where this on-off ratio comes into play. We want to be able to turn it on, have the pixel light up really bright, but we also want to be able to controllably dim it down."

Television screens contain millions of pixels. Rows and columns of circuits crisscross in the large arrays, with each pixel located at the intersections. Control circuitry drives transistors and turns them on and off.

Researchers found that transistors using a single nanowire carry enough current to drive a single pixel.

"Ideally, we want to have circuitry where each pixel has a drive transistor and then some control transistors with it so that you can turn your pixels on and off," Janes said.

The new nanowire transistors could be used to create electronics based on another emerging technology called OLEDS, or organic light-emitting diodes. OLEDS are now used in cell phone and MP3 displays and the newest television sets, Marks said.

Unlike liquid crystal displays, the pixels in OLEDS directly emit light.

"In LCDs, the whole screen is backlit by a white light, and then each pixel is basically just a little filter that you can turn on and off," Janes said. "So the light you see is not directly being emitted by that pixel; it's being kind of screened by that pixel. In OLEDS, each pixel directly emits light, making the color richer and eliminating the need to backlight the display. Because OLEDS pixels are bright only when their part of the image is bright, they are more efficient, and they are ideal for use in transparent displays."

The technology also could be used to create new flexible antennas that unfurl like a sail and aim their signals more precisely than current antennas.

"What the military would really like is for the soldiers to be able to pull up to their destinations and unroll this large-area antenna array and be able to communicate with each other," Janes said "Most antennas don't work this way now. For example, you might notice that your cell phone sometimes gets a signal and sometimes doesn't. Part of the reason for this is that your antenna doesn't have any way to look just in one direction versus everywhere. You want this sort of omni-directional effect in commercial broadcast antennas for television or radio, but for certain military communications you'd like to go just from one soldier to another and transmit in a tight beam."

The new transparent technology has been shown to have "carrier mobilities" similar to those of conventional computer microprocessors, meaning electrons travel in the devices at nearly the same speed as current consumer electronics but in a low-cost, flexible package.

"The significantly higher mobilities than other thin-film transistor technologies offer the potential to operate at much higher speeds and to use much smaller transistors and other devices," Janes said.

Research has been funded by NASA through the Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing, based at Purdue's Discovery Park, and at Northwestern University.

Nanotechnology is critical for the advancement because electricity flows differently on the scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter, than it does in larger wires. The nanowires used in the research measure as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. A single nanometer is roughly the size of 20 hydrogen atoms strung together.

Future research is expected to include work to integrate the thin-film transistors into large circuits and to develop ways to interconnect numerous transistors.