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The term psi denotes anomalous processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. Two variants of psi are precognition (conscious cognitive awareness) and premonition (affective apprehension) of a future event that could not otherwise be anticipated through any known inferential process. Precognition and premonition are themselves special cases of a more general phenomenon: the anomalous retroactive influence of some future event on an individual’s current responses, whether those responses are conscious or nonconscious, cognitive or affective. This article reports 9 experiments, involving more than 1,000 participants, that test for retroactive influence by “time-reversing” well-established psychological effects so that the individual’s responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Data are presented for 4 time-reversed effects: precognitive approach to erotic stimuli and precognitive avoidance of negative stimuli; retroactive priming; retroactive habituation; and retroactive facilitation of recall. All but one of the experiments yielded statistically significant results; and, across all 9 experiments, Stouffer’s z = 6.66, p = 1.34 × 10-11 with a mean effect size (d) of 0.22. The individual-difference variable of stimulus seeking, a component of extraversion, was significantly correlated with psi performance in 5 of the experiments, with participants who scored above the midpoint on a scale of stimulus seeking achieving a mean effect size of 0.43. Skepticism about psi, issues of replication, and theories of psi are also discussed.

Keywords: psi, parapsychology, ESP, precognition, retrocausation





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getting high on beans and marmalade
 getting high on beans and marmalade      15.06.2012 - 01:52:39 , level: 1, UP   NEW
http://www.osel.cz/index.php?clanek=6266

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cv::be
 cv::be      21.01.2011 - 23:01:01 , level: 1, UP   NEW
hm, a zdroj?

000001010006353305211994057610580577699505779973
IMH[Locked_OUT]
 IMH[Locked_OUT]      23.01.2011 - 19:43:26 , level: 2, UP   NEW
viz. hned prva stranka,

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, in press.
© 2010 American Psychological Association
0022-3514/10/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0021524

00000101000635330521199405761058057769950577997305780172
cv::be
 cv::be      23.01.2011 - 21:45:03 , level: 3, UP   NEW
bola to od zaciatku datanoda? ak hej, tak pardon, ze som si to nevsimol..

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IMH[Locked_OUT]
 IMH[Locked_OUT]      14.01.2011 - 22:25:27 , level: 1, UP   NEW
docela by ma zaujimal Vas nazor na toto...